Outdoor Killifisch


Paraphanius   Esmaeili, Teimori, Zarei & Sayyadzadeh, 2020


Type species. Lebias mento Heckel, 1843


Paraphanius mento (Heckel, 1843)   7 Arten

Reisen in Europa, Asien und Afrika, etc. E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagshandlung (E. Koch), Stuttgart, vol.1, part 2.: 1089, pl. 6 (fig. 4).

Type locality: Mosul, northern Iraq.


Gattung Paraphanius Esmaeili, Teimori, Zarei & Sayyadzadeh, 2020, im Stromgebiet von Euphrat und Tigris, Orontes, Küstenflüsse der Levante und im Einzugsgebiet von Jordan und Totem Meer.


Paraphanius alexandri (Akşiray, 1948)

Paraphanius boulengeri (Aksiray, 1948)  

Paraphanius mento (Heckel, 1843)  

Paraphanius mentoides (Akşiray 1948)

Paraphanius orontis (Akşiray 1948)

Paraphanius similis (Akşiray 1948)

Paraphanius striptus (Goren, 1974)


DNA barcoding and species delimitation of the Old World tooth-carps, family Aphaniidae Hoedeman, 1949 (Teleostei: Cyprinodontiformes)
Esmaeili, Teimori, Zarei, Sayyadzadeh. 2020



The fishes, which have currently named Aphanius Nardo, 1827 are the relict of the ancient ichthyofauna of the Tethys Sea. For a long time since 1827, the genus name has been subjected to revision by several researchers using mainly morphological features. Until recently, no comprehensive single- or multi-locus DNA barcoding study has been conducted on whole members of the family Aphaniidae. In the present study, by applying four conceptually different molecular species delimitation methods, including one distance-based method, one network-based and two topology-based methods, we examined a single-locus DNA barcode library (COI) diversity for the 268 sequences within the family Aphaniidae from the Old World (57 sequences are new in the present study and 211 sequences were retrieved from NCBI database). The molecular analyses revealed a clearer picture of intra-family relationships and allowed us to clarify the generic names, and also describe a new genus for the family Aphaniidae. Results supported distinction of three major clades related to three genera within this family: i) the first clade includes the A. mento group which are placed in a new genus, Paraphanius gen. nov., found in the Orontes Asi) and Tigris-Euphrates River drainage, the Levant in coastal waters and the Dead Sea basin, western Jordan, and in southern Turkey in the Mediterranean basins as well as in central Turkey. This clade positioned at the base of the phylogenetic tree, (ii) the second clade contains the A. dispar-like brackish water tooth-carps which are transferred to the genus Aphaniops Hoedeman, 1951 (type species, Lebias dispar), distributed in the coastal waters around the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf basins; and (iii) the third clade, the genus Aphanius Nardo, 1827 (type species Aphanius nanus = A. fasciatus) contains all the inland and inland-related tooth-carps, which are mainly distributed in the inland waters in Turkey and Iran and also in the inland-related drainages around the Mediterranean basin.

Diagnosis. Paraphanius is distinguished from all other genera in the family Aphaniidae by the unique nuptial male colour pattern, comprising a dark grey, bluish or almost black background colour with irregular or regular iridescent bluish, white or silvery spots, often arranged in vertical rows or narrow bars (vs. background colour silvery with brown or black bars in Anatolichthys, Aphanius, Kosswigichthys and most Aphaniops species, males with silvery vermiculation  or  roundish  to  ovoid  silvery  spots  or  blotches  on  grey  background  in  other  Aphaniops  species). Male Paraphanius are further distinguished by absence of bars in the caudal fin and instead possess very narrow, blue-white or silvery rows of spots or small blotches forming bands on a grey, black or blue background (vs. bars presence in caudal fin of Anatolichthys, Aphanius, and all Aphaniops except A. furcatus). Female Paraphanius are distinguished from other Aphaniid genera by presence of numerous silvery spots or small blotches on the flank (vs. 

absence, usually with narrow bars or brown or black blotches or spots) and absence of a bar or diamond-shaped to roundish bold black blotch at the centre of the caudal-fin base (vs. presence in Anatolichthys, Aphaniops, and Aphanius).Paraphanius is further distinguished by presence of a dermal sheath at the anal-fin base in the nuptial female (vs.  absence  in  Aphaniops),  absence  of  head  canals  (vs.  presence  in  Aphaniops  and  Aphanius),  and  absence  of black dorsal- and anal-fin margins in the male (vs. presence in Anatolichthys and Kosswigichthys, presence of black dorsal-fin margin only in Aphanius), possession of a single row of tricuspid teeth (vs. three rows of conical teeth in Kosswigichthys), and the body being completely covered by scales (vs. naked in Kosswigichthys).

Included species. Paraphanius alexandri, P. boulengeri, P. mento, P. mentoides, P. orontis, P. similis, P. striptus.


 Paraphanius alexandri (Aksiray, 1948)

Türkische Cyprinodontiden. I. Rev. Fac. Sci. Univ. Istambul, ser. B, 13 (2): 119.

Type locality: Iskenderun, Hatay, Turkey.

Paraphanius alexandri "Elbistan" 

Paraphanius alexandri "Elbistan"


Paraphanius mento (Heckel, 1843)

Russeger, J. Reisen in Europa, Asien und Afrika, etc. E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagshandlung (E. Koch), Stuttgart, vol.1, part 2.: 1089, pl. 6 (fig. 4).

Type locality: Mosul, northern Iraq.

Aphanius mentoides (Akşiray, 1948)

Türkische Cyprinodontidlerii hakkinda I. Revue de la Faculté des Sciences de l'Université d'Instanbul, Série B: Sciences Naturelles v. 13 (no. 2): 97-138, Pls. 1-4. [In German.]

Paraphanius mentoides "Kirkgoz TRM 2009"

Paraphanius orontis (Akşiray 1948)

Türkische Cyprinodontiden. I. Rev. Fac. Sci. Univ. Istambul, ser. B, 13 (2): 116, pl. 2 (figs. 5-6) ; figs. 11-12.

Type locality: Amiksees, Hatay, Turkey.

Paraphanius orontis "TRK 2006 Titreyengöl"

Paraphanius similis (Akşiray 1948)

Türkische Cyprinodontiden. I. Rev. Fac. Sci. Univ. Istambul, ser. B, 13 (2): 111, pl. 4 (figs. 38-42) ; figs. 9-10.

Type locality: Akgöl, near Konya Ereglisi, Turkey.


Paraphanius striptus (Goren, 1974)

The Freshwater Fishes of Israel. Israel J. Zool., 23: 99.

Type locality: north Taninim, Israel.

Paraphanius striptus "Israel"


A proposal for a new generic structure of the killifish family Aphaniidae, with the description of Aphaniops teimorii (Teleostei: Cyprinodontiformes) Freyhof, Jörg & Baran Yoğurtçuoğlu. 2020.


Following an exhaustive review of published molecular data and morphological characters, we propose a new generic classification for the Cyprinodontiform family Aphaniidae. The generic concept applied is based on monophyly, reasonable compactness, and morphological diagnoses. The proposed genera are monophyletic and compact groups that can be diagnosed by a combination of morphological characters.All species in Aphaniidae are morphologically homogeneous and have similar scale patterns, fin positions, and meristic characters. However, only a handful of morphological characters, including colour patterns, permit identification. We propose separation of Aphaniidae into eight monophyletic genera: Anatolichthys, Aphaniops, Aphanius, Kosswigichthys, Paraphanius, and Tellia, in addition to the new genera Esmaeilius and Apricaphanius, which are described for the species of the A. sophiae and A. iberus species groups, respectively. The original description of Aphanius hormuzensis does not fulfil the criteria of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, therefore this taxon is re-described as A. teimorii. Esmaeilius arakensis, E. kavirensis, E. mesopotamicus, and E. pluristriatus are treated as synonyms of E. sophiae. Esmaeilius farsicus is a junior synonym of E. persicus (Jenkins,

1910). The fossil genus Brachylebias is considered as incertae sedis since it lacks diagnostic characters which would permit it to be assigned to any of the extant genera recognised in this study.