Nematolebias (Costa 1998) 3 Arten


Phylogeny and classification of Rivulidae revisited: origin and evolution of annualism and miniturization in rivulid fishes (Cyprinodontiformes: Aplocheiloidei). Journal of Comparative Biology

Type-species: Nematolebias whitei (Myers 1942)

Type locality: 10 or 12 miles (ca. 17 km) north of Cabo Frio, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.


Costa, W. J. E. M.  2002

The neotropical seasonal fish genus Nematolebias (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae: Cynolebiatinae): taxonomic revision with description of a new species. 

Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 13 (no. 1): 41-52.


Nematolebias elegans, Ladiges 1958     Synonym of Nematolebias whitei

Nematolebias catimbau (Costa Amorim and Aranha 2014)

Nematolebias papilliferus, Costa 2002

Nematolebias whitei, Myers 1942


Descriptive morphology and phylogenetic relationships among species of the Neotropical annual killifish genera Nematolebias and Simpsonichthys (Cyprinodontiformes: Aplocheiloidei: Rivulidae)    Costa 2006



Structures of the external morphology and skeleton of the annual fish genera Nematolebias and Simpsonichthys are described and illustrated. Phylogenetic relationships among all included species of both genera and other cynolebiatins are estimated, based on 116 morphological characters in a total of 50 terminal taxa. Nematolebias is hypothesized to be the sister group of a clade including Simpsonichthys, Austrolebias, Megalebias, and Cynolebias, which is diagnosed by ventral portion of mesopterygoid not overlapping quadrate, third neural spine approximately as wide as fourth neural spine, ventral condyle of coracoid narrow, scales slightly extending over anal-fin base, loss of vomerine teeth, loss of neuromast anterior to infraorbital series, ventral process of the angulo-articular short and narrow, and dorsal portion of cleithrum elongated. Simpsonichthys is divided into five subgenera, including Spectrolebias, previously considered a separate genus, Simpsonichthys, and three new subgenera, Xenurolebias, Ophthalmolebias, and Hypsolebias. Monophyly of Simpsonichthys is supported by a small pointed dorsal process on the palatine, unbranched fin rays on the tip of the dorsal and anal fins in males, and frontal E-scales overlapped.


Nematolebias catimbau (Costa Amorim and Aranha 2014)

Species limits and DNA barcodes in Nematolebias, a genus of seasonal killifishes threatened with extinction from the Atlantic Forest of south-eastern Brazil, with description of a new species (Teleostei: Rivulidae).


Nematolebias, a genus of killifishes uniquely living in temporary pools of south-eastern Brazil, contains two nominal species, N. whitei, a popular aquarium fish, and N. papilliferus, both threatened with extinction and presently distinguishable by male colour patterns. Species limits previously established on the basis of morphological characters were tested using mt-DNA sequences comprising fragments of the mitochondrial genes cytochrome b and cytochrome c oxidase I, taken from 23 specimens representing six populations along the whole geographical distribution of the genus. The analysis supports the recognition of a third species, N. catimbau, new species, from the Saquarema lagoon basin, as an exclusive lineage sister to N. papilliferus, from the Maricá lagoon basin, and N. whitei, from the area encompassing the Araruama lagoon and lower São João river basins, as a basal lineage. The new species is distinguished from congeners by the colour pattern and the relative position of pelvic-fin base, besides 11 unique nucleotide substitutions. The distribution pattern derived from sister taxa inhabiting the Saquarema and Maricá basins is corroborated by a clade of the seasonal genus Notho lebias, suggesting a common biogeographical history for the two genera.

Nematolebias catimbau "Sampaio Correia G-1/15"

Nematolebias papilliferus, Costa 2002

The neotropical seasonal Fish genus Nematolebias (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae: Cynolebiatinae): taxonomic Revision, with Description of a new Species. Ichthyol. ExpIor. Freshwaters, 13 (1): 47, figs. 5-6.

Type locality: Inoa, pool close to a tributary of laguna Marica, road RJ-106, Rio de Janeiro state, (southeastern) Brasil.

Nematolebias papilliferus "Inoa"

Nematolebias papilliferus "Inoa (Albino)"

Nematolebias whitei, Myers 1942

Myerst, G.S. 1942. Studies on South American freshwaterfishes I. Stanford

Ichthyological Bulletin 2 (4) 106-107.

Type locality: 10 or 12 miles (ca. 17 km) north of Cabo Frio, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

Nematolebias whitei "BSJ 2095/03"


A new genus of miniature cynolebiasine from the Atlantic Forest and alternative biogeographical explanations for seasonal killifish distribution patterns in South America (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae)  (Costa 2014)


Abstract The analysis of 78 morphological characters for 16 species representing all the lineages of the tribe Cynopoecilini and three out-groups, indicates that the incertae sedis miniature species ‘Leptolebias’ leitaoi Cruz & Peixoto is the sister group of a clade comprising the genera Leptolebias, Campellolebias, and Cynopoecilus, consequently recognised as the only member of a new genus. Mucurilebias gen. nov. is diagnosed by seven autapomorphies: eye occupying great part of head side, low number of caudal-fin rays (21), distal portion of epural much broader than distal portion of parhypural, an oblique red bar through opercle in both sexes, isthmus bright red in males, a white stripe on the distal margin of the dorsal fin in males, and a red stripe on the distal margin of the anal fin in males. Mucurilebias leitaoi is an endangered seasonal species endemic to the Mucuri river basin. The biogeographical analysis of genera of the subfamily Cynolebiasinae using a dispersal-vicariance, event-based parsimony approach indicates that distribution of South American killifishes may be broadly shaped by dispersal events. The analysis supports south-eastern Brazilian coastal plains as the centre of dispersal for cynolebiasine killifishes. Alternative biogeographical explanations are compared and possible dispersal routes and means of dispersal are discussed.