Simpsonichthys (Carvalho, 1959)


Novo Genero e novo Especie de Peixe anual de Brasilia, com uma Nota sobre os Peixes anuais da Baixada Fluminense, Brasil. Bol. Mus. Nac. (N.S.) Rio de Janeiro, 201: 2.


Type-species: Simpsonichthys boitonei (Carvalho, 1959)


Type locality: Brasilia, central high flat land of the state of Goiás (today Distrito Federal), Brasil, 1100 m altitude.






Simpsonichthys santanae

Descriptive morphology and phylogenetic relationships among species of the Neotropical annual killifish genera Nematolebias and Simpsonichthys (Cyprinodontiformes: Aplocheiloidei: Rivulidae)    Costa 2006


Neotropical Ichthyology, 4(1):1-26, 2006 



Structures of the external morphology and skeleton of the annual fish genera Nematolebias and Simpsonichthys are described and illustrated. Phylogenetic relationships among all included species of both genera and other cynolebiatins are estimated, based on 116 morphological characters in a total of 50 terminal taxa. Nematolebias is hypothesized to be the sister group of a clade including Simpsonichthys, Austrolebias, Megalebias, and Cynolebias, which is diagnosed by ventral portion of mesopterygoid not overlapping quadrate, third neural spine approximately as wide as fourth neural spine, ventral condyle of coracoid narrow, scales slightly extending over anal-fin base, loss of vomerine teeth, loss of neuromast anterior to infraorbital series, ventral process of the angulo-articular short and narrow, and dorsal portion of cleithrum elongated. Simpsonichthys is divided into five subgenera, including Spectrolebias, previously considered a separate genus, Simpsonichthys, and three new subgenera, Xenurolebias, Ophthalmolebias, and Hypsolebias. Monophyly of Simpsonichthys is supported by a small pointed dorsal process on the palatine, unbranched fin rays on the tip of the dorsal and anal fins in males, and frontal E-scales overlapped.


Simpsonichthys - Arten

Simpsonichthys boitonei (Carvalho 1959)

Novo Genero e novo Especie de Peixe anual de Brasilia, com uma Nota sobre os Peixes anuais da Baixada Fluminense, Brasil. Bol. Mus. Nac. (N.S.) Rio de Janeiro, 201: 5, figs.

Type locality: Brasilia, central high flat land of the state of Goiás (today Distrito Federal), Brasil, 1100 m altitude.

Simpsonichthys cholopteryx (Costa, Moreira & Lima, 2003)

Simpsonichthys cholopteryx n. sp. (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae: Cynolebiatinae): a new dwarf annual Fish from the upper Rio Araguaia Basin, central Brazil. Aqua, Journal of Ichthyology and Aquatic Biology, 6 (4), 140, figs. 1-2.

Type locality: 31 km south Alto Araguaia, road MT 100, Ribeirao do Sapo, Rio Araguaia basin, Mato Grosso, (central) Brasil

Simpsonichthys espinhacensis (Nielsen, Pessali & Dutra, 2017)

A new annual fish of the genus Simpsonichthys (Cyprinodontiformes: Cynolebiidae) from the upper Rio Jequitinhonha basin, Brazil. Zootaxa, 4263 (1): 165–172.


A new species of Simpsonichthys is described from the upper rio Jequitinhonha basin, Minas Gerais, eastern Brazil. It is diagnosed from all congeners by presenting an A-patterned frontal squamation. Additionally, males of the new species differs from all congeners by the color pattern of body, the color of iris, the absence of contact organs in the pectoral fin, presence of scales on anal-fin base, pectoral-fin length, caudal fin length, and eye diameter. Females of the new species can be diagnosed from remaining congeners by the pectoral-fin length. The conservation status of the new species is evaluated. Comments on the relationships of the new species within the genus Simpsonichthys are presented.


Simpsonichthys nigromaculatus (Costa, 2007)

Simpsonichthys nigromaculatus, a new miniature seasonal killifish from the upper rio Paraná basin, central Brazil (Teleostei: Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae) Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwaters, Vol. 18, No. 3, pp. 199-203, 2 figs., 1 tab., September 2007


Simpsonichthys nigromaculatus, new species, collected in a seasonal swamp at the floodplains of rio da Prata, rio Aporé drainage, upper rio Paraná basin, central Brazil, is described. It is a member of the western clade of the subgenus Simpsonichthys, which is diagnosed by having 24-26 vertebrae, a dark gray band bordered by a bright blue line on the margins of the unpaired fins in males, the anterior and posterior margins of the iris bright blue, a maximum adult size about 25 mm SL, and by the absence of pelvic fin and pelvic girdle, and second pharyngobranchial teeth; this clade also includes S. parallelus and S. cholopteryx. Simpsonichthys nigromaculatus is hypothesized to be more closely related to S. parallelus by both species sharing the presence of a short postorbital pink stripe and the basal portion of all unpaired fins orange in males. It further differs from S. cholopteryx by having fewer anal-fin rays in females, narrower blue bars on flank in males, and absence of bars on fins; and from S. parallelus by having yellow dots on the caudal fin in males and deeper body in males.


Simpsonichthys parallelus (Costa, 2000)

Descriçoes de quatro novas espécies de peixes annuais do gênero Simpsonichthys (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae) das Bacias dos Rios Sao Francisco e Parana, nordeste e centro do Brasil. Revista Aquarium, 3 (25): 13, figs. 7-8.

Type locality: rio Formoso, trib. rio Correntes, Parque Nacional da Emas, Goias state, Brasil.

Simpsonichthys punctulatus Costa & Brasil, 2007

Simpsonichthys punctulatus n. sp. – a new seasonal killifish (Teleostei: Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae) from the upper rio São Francisco basin, central Brazil (Vertebrate Zoology 57 (1) 2000)


Simpsonichthys punctulatus, sp. n., aus einem temporären Sumpfgewässer des Einzugsgebietes des rio Paracatu, rio-SãoFrancisco-Becken, in Zentralbrasilien wird beschrieben. Die Art gehört zum östlichen Klade der Untergattung Simpsonichthys, welche S. boitonei, S. santanae und S. zonatus einschließt und durch rote Pectoralen mit blauen Punkten bei den Männchen charakterisiert ist. Simpsonichthys punctulatus unterscheidet sich von allen anderen Arten der Untergattung Simpsonichthys durch das Vorhandensein von hellblauen Punkten auf den Körperseiten der Männchen und lang ausgezogenen Flossenstrahlen der Dorsale der Männchen.

Simpsonichthys punctulatus "Goias NP-2007"

Simpsonichthys santanae (Shibata & Garavello, 1992)

Descricao de uma nova Espécie do Gênero Cynolebias Stdr do Brasil central (Pisces: Cyprinodontiformes). Comunicaçoes de Museu de Ciências, Pontifica Univ. Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, 5 (11): 182, fig. 5.

Type locality: sides of Sant'ana river, 750 m from border of Distrito Federal with Goiás, Districto Federal, Brasil.

Simpsonichthys santanae "Rebeiro de Santana"


Simpsonichthys margaritatus (Costa, 2012)

Simpsonichthys margaritatus, a new seasonal miniature killifish from the upper Paraná River basin, central Brazilian Cerrado (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae) Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwaters, Vol. 22, No. 4, pp. 313-318, 2 figs., 1 tab., December 2011


Simpsonichthys margaritatus, new species, is described from the Verde River floodplains, upper Paraná River basin, central Brazil. It is distinguished from all other congeners by having series of small light blue to light yellow spots arranged in close proximity on the dorsal and caudal fins in males and oblique dark brown bars on the anal fin in females. It is member of a clade including miniature species endemic to an area of central Brazilian high plateaus drained by rivers connected to the lower section of the Paranaíba River and adjacent upper tributaries of the Araguaia River The new species seems to be more closely related to S. cholopteryx, from the upper Araguaia River basin, by both having oblique red bars on the anal fin in males.


Simpsonichthys margaritatus "Rio- Verde BR MPM 2012/07"

Simpsonichthys zonatus (Costa & Brasil, 1990)

Description of two new annual Fishes of the Genus Cynolebias (Cyprinodontiformes, Rivulidae) from the Sao Francisco Basin, Brazil. Ichthyol. ExpIor. Freshwaters, 1 (1): 16, figs. 1-2.

Type locality: Garapuava district, Municipio de Unaí, Minas Gerais, Brasil.


Simpsonichthys zonatus


A new genus of miniature cynolebiasine from the Atlantic Forest and alternative biogeographical explanations for seasonal killifish distribution patterns in

South America (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae)  (Costa 2014)


Vertebrate zoology 64 (1): 23–33 / 16.05.2014


Abstract The analysis of 78 morphological characters for 16 species representing all the lineages of the tribe Cynopoecilini and three out-groups, indicates that the incertae sedis miniature species ‘Leptolebias’ leitaoi Cruz & Peixoto is the sister group of a clade comprising the genera Leptolebias, Campellolebias, and Cynopoecilus, consequently recognised as the only member of a new genus. Mucurilebias gen. nov. is diagnosed by seven autapomorphies: eye occupying great part of head side, low number of caudal-fin rays (21), distal portion of epural much broader than distal portion of parhypural, an oblique red bar through opercle in both sexes, isthmus bright red in males, a white stripe on the distal margin of the dorsal fin in males, and a red stripe on the distal margin of the anal fin in males. Mucurilebias leitaoi is an endangered seasonal species endemic to the Mucuri river basin. The biogeographical analysis of genera of the subfamily Cynolebiasinae using a dispersal-vicariance, event-based parsimony approach indicates that distribution of South American killifishes may be broadly shaped by dispersal events. The analysis supports south-eastern Brazilian coastal plains as the centre of dispersal for cynolebiasine killifishes. Alternative biogeographical explanations are compared and possible dispersal routes and means of dispersal are discussed.