Leptopanchax (Costa 2016) 6 Arten

Type-species: Cynolebias citrinipinnis Costa, Lacerda & Tanizaki 1988.

Type locality: Maricá, Rio de Janeiro State, Brasil. 


Leptopanchax aureoguttatus (da Cruz, 1974)

Leptopanchax citrinipinnis (W. J. E. M. Costa, Lacerda & Tanizaki, 1988)

Leptopanchax fluminensis  (Faria & Muller, 1937   Synonym of Leptopanchax opalescens

Leptopanchax itanhaensis (W. J. E. M. Costa, 2008)

Leptopanchax nanus  (Da Cruz & Peixoto, 1983)    Synonym of Leptopanchax opalescens

Leptopanchax opalescens (G. S. Myers, 1942)

Leptopanchax sanguineus  (Costa WJEM. 2019)

Leptopanchax splendens (G. S. Myers, 1942)


Comparative morphology and classification of South American cynopoeciline killifishes (Cyprinodontiformes: Aplocheilidae), with notes on family-group names used for aplocheiloids (Costa 2016)


Abstract: A comparative morphological study involving all cynopoeciline killifishes indicates that Leptolebias marmoratus is more closely related to species of the genera Campellolebias and Cynopoecilus than to other species of Leptolebias, and that Mucurilebias leitaoi is the sister group of a clade comprising all other cynopoecilines. Leptopanchax, new genus, is described to place species that share urogenital papilla in males separated from the anal-fin origin by broad interspace, basal portion of the urogenital papilla in males not forming a pronounced wide structure, absence of thickened tissue on the basal portion of the anal fin in males, caudal fin oval and symmetrical in males, anterior proximal radials of the anal fin not placed in close proximity in males, presence of a broad iridescent golden stripe on the distal zone of the dorsal fin in males, and caudal fin with vermiculate dark red marks in males. Poecilopanchax, new subgenus of Cynopoecilus, is diagnosed by having the basihyal narrow, about rectangular, the interarcual element of the dorsal branchial arch ossified, the uncinate process of the third epibranchial distinctively widened, a long filamentous ray on the tip of the anal fin in males, caudal fin lanceolate in males, dark bars on the flank in females, branchiostegal region with intense red pigmentation in males, a brownish red stripe on the basal portion of the dorsal fin in males, and dark red marks extending to the antero-distal margin of the dorsal fin in males. This study follows an old classificatory scheme in which all aplocheiloids are placed in a single family, the Aplocheilidae.


Leptopanchax, new genus

Included species, distribution and habitat. Five species: L. aureoguttatus (Cruz, 1974), L. citrinipinnis (Costa, Lacerda & Tanizaki, 1988), L. itanhaensis (Costa, 2008). L. opalescens (Myers, 1942), and L. splendens (Myers, 1942), between the Laguna de Maricá system in south-eastern Brazil and river basins draining into the Baía de Paranaguá, southern Brazil. Two species, L. citrinipinnis and L. opalescens are found in temporary pools within open vegetation formations, including coastal ’Restinga’, whereas the remaining species of Leptopanchax are found in seasonal shallow channels within dense rain forest (Costa & Lacerda, 1988; Costa et al., 1988; Costa, 2008). 


Leptopanchax aureoguttatus (da Cruz, 1974)


Sobre Cynolebias aureoguttatus Myers, 1952 (Osteichthyes, Cyprinodontidae, Rivulinae). Arq. Univ. Fed. Rur. Rio de Janeiro, 2 (4): 20.

Type locality: no type locality (Registro, Sao Paulo state, southeastern Brasil, subseq.).









Leptopanchax aureoguttatus "Paranagua"

Leptopanchax citrinipinnis (W. J. E. M. Costa, Lacerda & Tanizaki, 1988)

Description d'une nouvelle Espèce de Cynolebias des Plaines côtières du Brésil sud-oriental (Cyprinodontiformes, Rivulidae). Rev. fr. Aquariol. Herpétol., 15 (1): 22, fig. 1.

Type locality: Maricá, Rio de Janeiro State, Brasil.









Leptopanchax  citrinipinnis "Barra de Marica"


Leptopanchax itanhaensis (W. J. E. M. Costa, 2008)

Monophyly and taxonomy of the Neotropical seasonal killifish genus Leptolebias (Teleostei: Aplocheiloidei: Rivulidae), with the description of a new genus.

Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society v. 153 (no. 1): 147-160.


A phylogenetic analysis based on morphological characters indicates that Leptolebias Myers, 1952, a genus of small killifishes highly threatened with extinction, from Brazil, is paraphyletic. As a consequence, Leptolebias is restricted in this study to a well-supported clade that includes Leptolebias marmoratus (Ladiges, 1934), Leptolebias splendens (Myers, 1942), Leptolebias opalescens (Myers, 1942), and Leptolebias citrinipinnis (Costa, Lacerda & Tanizaki, 1988), from the coastal plains of Rio de Janeiro, and Leptolebias aureoguttatus (Cruz, 1974) (herein redescribed, and for which a lectotype is designated) and Leptolebias itanhaensis sp. nov., from the coastal plains of São Paulo and Paraná, in southern Brazil.Leptolebias is diagnosed by three synapomorphies: a caudal fin that is longer than deep, a single anterior supraorbital neuromast, and dark pigmentation that does not extend to the distal portion of the dorsal fin in males. A key is provided for the identification of species of Leptolebias. Three species formerly placed in Leptolebias, Leptolebias minimus (Myers, 1942), Leptolebias fractifasciatus (Costa, 1988), and Leptolebias cruzi (Costa, 1988), are transferred to Notholebias gen. nov., which is hypothesized to be the sister group to the clade comprising Leptolebias, Campellolebias Vaz-Ferreira & Sierra, 1974, and Cynopoecilus Regan, 1912. Notholebias gen nov. is diagnosed by two synapomorphies: a narrow basihyal and the presence of iridescent bars on the caudal fin in males; and three features interpreted as plesiomorphic, but not occurring in Leptolebias, Campellolebias, or Cynopoecilus, the presence of dermosphenotic, well-developed contact organs on the pectoral fin in males, and an opercular region with red bars in males. 'Leptolebias' leitaoi, a species from Bahia, in north-eastern Brazil, is considered as having an uncertain phylogenetic position, as all known preserved material is presently lost, and the species may be extinct.


Leptopanchax opalescens (G. S. Myers, 1942)

Studies on South American fresh-water fishes. I. Stanford Ichthyological Bulletin v. 2 (no. 4): 89-114. 


The recapture of Leptopanchax opalescens (Aplocheiloidei: Rivulidae), a critically endangered seasonal killifish: habitat and aspects of population structure

Gustavo H. S. Guedes, Fernando L. K. Salgado, Wagner Uehara, Débora L. de Pavia Ferreira, Francisco G. Araújo


Leptopanchax opalescens (Myers, 1942) is a small seasonal killifish endemic to coastal drainages in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Leptopanchax opalescens was recaptured in temporary open vegetation pools (22°42.35’S, 43°41.59’W) in the hydrographic basin of the Guandu River, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, after eight years without records. Information on habitat and population parameters (Capture per unit area (CPUA), size, sex ratio and length-weight relationship (LWR)) are given to provide subsidies for the conservation of this species. Specimens were captured during the rainy season (January-April 2020) in shallow pools (mean depth = 21 ± 12 s.d. cm), with relatively acidic pH (5.2 ± 0.8) and low concentrations of dissolved oxygen (3.5 ± 1 mg/L). The estimated CPUA of the population was 0.89 fish/m2. The total length (TL) of males ranged from 21.1 to 28.8 cm, and females ranged from 17.0 to 31.2 mm. Males were significantly larger (t-test = 2.04, p < 0.05) than females, which were in greater proportion (2.83Female: 1Male, p < 0.001). A positive allometric coefficient (b = 3.19) was found through length-weight relationship curve, indicating that individuals of the species gain proportionally more increment in weight than in length. Leptopanchax opalescens is a critically endangered species, and the results of this study contribute to the knowledge of the distribution, population structure and conservation of the species and its natural habitats.



Leptopanchax sanguineus  (Costa WJEM. 2019)

Description of a new species of cynopoeciline killifish (Cyprinodontiformes, Aplocheilidae), possibly extinct, from the Atlantic Forest of south-eastern Brazil

Costa WJEM. 2019. ZooKeys 867: 73-85


Specimens found between 1985 and 1988 in the Magé River Basin, south-eastern Brazil were misidentified as L. splendens. The recent rediscovery of other specimens in the Estrela River Basin near the type locality of L. splendens has clarified the species’ concept, making it possible to recognise the Magé River Basin specimens as a new species. The new species is herein described as Leptopanchax sanguineus sp. nov. and is distinguished from all other cynopoecilines by a unique colour pattern in males, including red bars with sinuous margins. It was collected in a well-preserved, temporary shallow swampy area within dense moist forest, but since 1990 the species has not been found again. Leptopanchax sanguineus sp. nov. is one of three species of cynopoeciline killifishes living in lowland moist forests of the coastal plains of Rio de Janeiro State, where the greatest diversity of endemic cynopoecilines is concentrated. Each of these species has been recorded a single time in the last 30 years, a surprisingly low record attributable to intense deforestation during the last several decades resulting in small fragmented lowland moist forests of today. This study indicates that seasonal killifishes adapted to uniquely live in this kind of habitat should be regarded with special concern in studies evaluating conservation priorities.



Leptopanchax splendens (G. S. Myers, 1942)

Studies on South American Freshwater Fishes I. Stanford Ichthyological Bull., 2 (4): 110.

Type locality: along foothills of Serra de Petrópolis, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.


Rediscovery of Leptopanchax splendens (Cyprinodontiformes: Aplocheilidae): a seasonal killifish from the Atlantic Forest of south‐eastern Brazil that was recently considered extinct

W. J. E. M. Costa J. L. O. Matt P. F. Amorim

First published: 02 January 2019  https://doi.org/10.1111/jfb.13898 



A recent collection of the seasonal killifish found Leptopanchax splendens c. 5 km from the type locality, 74 years after its last record. The species was historically common in its type locality, the Estrela River basin in south‐eastern Brazil, until 1950, after which it was not encountered and thought to have become extinct due to widespread deforestation and urbanization in the region. Despite the rediscovery, this study finds that other recently published reports of L. splendens are misidentifications.