Outdoor Killifisch


Profundulus (Hubbs, 1924)    (10 Arten)

Studies of the fishes of the order Cyprinodontes. Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan No. 13: 1-31, Pls. 1-4.

Type-species: by original designation as Fundulus punctatus Günther, 1866.

Type locality: Chiapam (near Champerico, subseq.), Guatemala 

Profundulus adani Dominguez, Velazquez, McMahan & Matamoros, 2021

Profundulus chimalapensis  Del Moral-Flores....2020

Profundulus balsanus Ahl, 1935

Profundulus emilioi, Calixto, Lira, Rubio, Leon & Pinacho, 2023

Profundulus guatemalensis (Günther, 1866)

Profundulus kreiseri Matamoros et al., 2012

Profundulus mixtlanensis (Ornelas-García, Martinez-Ramírez & Doadrio 2015)

Profundulus oaxacae (Meek, 1902)

Profundulus rei, Calixto, Lira, Rubio, Leon & Pinacho, 2023

Profundulus pachycephalus,  Günther 1866   Synonym of Profundulus punctatus

Profundulus parentiae  (Matamoros, Dominguez, Velazquez & McMahan, 2018)

Profundulus punctatus (Günther, 1866)

Profundulus scapularis,  Fowler 1936   Synonym of Profundulus punctatus

Phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of the Mesoamerican endemic freshwater fish family Profundulidae (Cyprinodontiformes: Actinopterygii)

Felipe Morcilloa, Claudia Patricia Ornelas-Garcíab , Lourdes Alcaraza, Wilfredo   A. Matamorosc, Ignacio Doadrioa, 2016


Freshwater fishes of Profundulidae, which until now was composed of two subgenera, represent one of the few extant fish families endemic to Mesoamerica. In this study we investigated the phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of the eight recognized extant species (from 37 populations) of Profundulidae using three mitochondrial and one nuclear gene markers (∼2.9 Kbp). We applied a Bayesian species delimitation method as a first approach to resolving speciation patterns within Profundulidae considering two different scenarios, eight-species and twelve-species models, obtained in a previous phylogenetic analysis. Based on our results, each of the two subgenera was resolved as monophyletic, with a remarkable molecular divergence of 24.5% for mtDNA and 7.8% for nDNA uncorrected p distances, and thus we propose that they correspond to separate genera. Moreover, we propose a conservative taxonomic hypothesis with five species within Profundulus and three within Tlaloc, although both eight-species and twelve-species models were highly supported by the bayesian species delimitation analysis, providing additional evidence of higher taxonomic diversity than currently recognized in this family. According to our divergence time estimates, the family originated during the Upper Oligocene 26 Mya, and Profundulus and Tlaloc diverged in the Upper Oligocene or Lower Miocene about 20 Mya.


Molecular data support the monophyly of Profundulus and Tlaloc.

Profundulus and Tlaloc are proposed as distinct genera.

Bayesian species delimitation method support greater number of species in the family.

Two different episodes of diversification was proposed in the family.


 Profundulus adani Dominguez, Velazquez, McMahan & Matamoros, 2021

A new species of killifish of the genus Profundulus (Atherinomorpha: Profundulidae) from the upper reaches of the Papaloapan River in the Mexican state of Oaxaca

Profundulus adani, new species, is described from the upper reaches of the Papaloapan River in the Mexican state of Oaxaca. The uniqueness of this new species is supported by morphological and molecular evidence. A combination of color patterns and counts separate P. adani, new species, from its congeners. Profundulus adani, new species, is distinguished from all congeners by the absence of a humeral spot in individuals larger than 45 mm SL. It can further be distinguished from P. balsanus, P. chimalapensis, P. kreiseri, P. oaxacae, P. parentiae, and P. punctatus based on the absence of series of dark dots on the sides of the body. Profundulus adani, new species, shows a faded dark band that extends from the tip of the operculum to the end of the caudal peduncle; this band is absent in P. balsanus and P. parentiae. The new species is described using specimens collected in the upper reaches of the Papaloapan River in the Mexican state of Oaxaca; geographically this represents a significant range expansion and extends the Atlantic slope northernmost limit of the Profundulidae 


Profundulus chimalapensis, Del Moral-Flores....2020

Profundulus chimalapensis, una nueva especie de pez ciprinodóntido (Cyprinodontiformes: Profundulidae) del Río Coatzacoalcos, México

Del Moral-Flores, L.F., López-Segovia, E., & Hernández-Arellano, T. (2020). Revista de Biología Tropical, 68(4), 1185-1197.


Profundulus chimalapensis, a new species of cyprinodontid fish (Cyrpinodontiformes: Profundulidae) from the Coatzacoalcos River, Mexico. Introduction: The genus Profundulus is considered a Mesoamerican endemic fish which spreading occurs, from the center-south of the state of Guerrero, Mexico, to the central part of Honduras. They mainly inhabit the upper basins and headwaters of the rivers of the Pacific slope, with less diversity in the Atlantic. Objective: This paper, based on morphological comparison we propose a new species, Profundulus chimalapensis sp. nov., confined to Mexico. Methods: Specimens were collected in the tributaries of the upper basin of the Coatzacoalcos River and were deposited in scientific collections. Morphological data (counts, measurements and skeletal features) were taken and compared with related species. Results: The new species differs from its congeners by having the following combination of characters: 12-15 dorsal-fin rays, 14-17 anal- and 13-16 pectoral-fin rays; dark colored stripe on the flanks; anal fin with a clear distal margin; anterior and posterior margin of the alveolar process of the premaxilla concave; pair of short and wide epiotic processes; and large anal fin base, equal to or greater than length of caudal peduncle. Conclusion: The description of this new Profundulus species from Atlantic side of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec suggests that this area has been a center of speciation for the genus.


Profundulus balsanus Ahl, 1935

Ueber eine Fischsammlung aus Mexico. Sitz. Gesell. Naturf. Freunde, Berlin, (1935): 108.

Type locality: Malinaltepec, río Balsas basin (Papagayo river basin), Guerrero, Mexico.


Profundulus emilioi, Calixto, Lira, Rubio, Leon & Pinacho, 2023

Profundulus rei, Calixto, Lira, Rubio, Leon & Pinacho, 2023 

Delimitation and species discovery in the Profundulidae fish family: Using genetic, environmental and morphologic data to address taxonomic uncertainty

Calixto, Lira, Rubio, Leon & Pinacho, 2023


The family Profundulidae includes some one of the most enigmatic freshwater fishes of Mesoamerica: despite many attempts, a robust phylogenetic framework to delimit species is lacking, mainly due to limited morphological variation within the group. The accumulation of molecular data of profundulid fishes has led to advances in the description of new taxa, but relatively less progress has been made estimating evolutionary and phylogenetic relationships for this fish family. Here, we adopt an integrative taxonomy approach including the use of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences, morphometric and ecological data, to test species boundaries in profundulid fishes in the westernmost area of their known distribution range in the states of Guerrero and Oaxaca, Mexico. Using a combination of methods for species discovery and validation based on Bayesian gene tree topologies, our analyses support the delimitation of 15 valid species of profundulid fishes — a combination of previously described species validated by this study, the synonymy of unsupported taxa, and the description of two new species. Using species delimitation methods, examination of phenotypic variation, and ecological niche characterization, we also identify five potentially new lineages which require further evidence to be erected as new species. We demonstrate that the use of an integrative taxonomy approach provides a robust methodology to delimit species in a taxonomically complex group like Profundulidae. Accurate taxonomic and ecological information is crucial for the conservation of these microendemic fishes, as several species are endangered.



Profundulus guatemalensis (Günther, 1866)

Catalog of Fishes in the British Museum. British Museum, London., 6: 321.

Type locality: rio Guacalate (probably close to Duenas, 8 km southwest of Antigua, subseq. ; also lake Duenas), Pacific drainage, Guatemala [and Ecuador (erroneous)].



Profundulus kreiseri Matamoros et al., 2012

Profundulus kreiseri, a new species of Profundulidae (Teleostei, Cyprinodontiformes) from northwestern Honduras

Abstract: A new species of Profundulus, Profundulus kreiseri (Cyprinodontiformes: Profundulidae), is described from the Chamelecón and Ulúa Rivers in the northwestern Honduran highlands. Based on a phylogenetic analysis using cytochrome b and the presence of synapomorphic characters (dark humeral spot, a scaled preorbital region and between 32-34 vertebrae), this new species is placed in the subgenus Profundulus, which also includes Profundulus (Profundulus) oaxacae, Profundulus (Profundulus) punctatus and Profundulus (Profundulus) guatemalensis. Profundulus kreiseri can be distinguished from other members of the subgenus Profundulus by having less than half of its caudal fin densely scaled. Profundulus kreiseri can further be differentiated from Profundulus (Profundulus) oaxacae and Profundulus (Profundulus) punctatus by the absence of rows of dark spots on its flanks. The new species can further be differentiated from Profundulus (Profundulus) guatemalensis by the presence of fewer caudal- and pectoral-fin rays. The new species is distinguished from congeners of the profundulid subgenus Tlaloc (viz., Profundulus (Tlaloc) hildebrandi, Profundulus (Tlaloc) labialis, Profundulus (Tlaloc) candalarius and Profundulus (Tlaloc) portillorum) by having a scaled preorbital region and a dark humeral spot. Profundulus kreiseri and Profundulus portillorum are the only two species of Profundulus that are endemic to the region south of the Motagua River drainage in southern Guatemala and northwestern Honduras.


Profundulus mixtlanensis (Ornelas-García, Martinez-Ramírez & Doadrio 2015)

A new species of killifish of the family Profundulidae from the highlands of the Mixteca region, Mexico. Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad v. 86 (no. 4): 926-933.

Abstract: The family Profundulidae is one of the few families of freshwater fishes endemic to the Mesoamerican region. It includes the genus Profundulus that has been divided into two subgenera, Profundulus, with a wider distribution and Tlaloc, which presents a more limited range. The species currently recognized within the subgenus Profundulus are P. punctatus, P. oaxacae, P. guatemalensis and P. kreiseri. Results from a previous study using allozymes revealed a high degree of molecular differentiation of the populations inhabiting the Mixteca region (located at the north of Oaxaca in Mexico), compared to the rest of the species in the genus, especially regarding its geographically nearest neighbor (P. oaxacae). The main goal of this study was to evaluate the morphological distinctiveness and to assess the taxonomic identity of the populations from the Mixteca region in comparison with the morphological variation of P. oaxacae. Based on 22 measurements (17 morphometric and 5 meristic), we examined the morphological variation within and among species, including 50 individuals from 5 localities. Our results show a high degree of morphological differentiation between both populations in accordance to the molecular information reported before, supporting that populations from the Mixteca region are a new taxonomic entity, which is described in the present study.


Profundulus oaxacae (Meek, 1902)

A Contribution to the Ichthyology of Mexico. Field Columbian Mus. Zool. Ser. (Chicago Nat. Hist. Mus. Fieldiana Zool.) Publication, 3 (6): 90, pl. 20.

Type locality: río Verde at Oaxaca (today Oaxaca de Juarez), (Atoyac-Verde rivers basin, Oaxaca state) southern Mexico.


Profundulus parentiae  (Matamoros, Dominguez, Velazquez & McMahan, 2018)

Copeia, 106 (2): 239-246


The Middle American killifish genus Profundulus occurs in most Pacific and Atlantic drainages from the Mexican state of Guerrero to the Chamelecón River in Honduras, with highest species diversity in southern Mexico. In this study, we describe a new member of the genus, Profundulus parentiae, new species, from the Mexican state of Oaxaca. It is distinguished from P. guatemalensis and P. kreiseri by having rows of dots on the sides of the body. Profundulus parentiae, new species, can be distinguished from P. oaxacae by having 33 lateral scales, versus 29–31 in P. oaxacae. Profundulus parentiae, new species, can be distinguished from P. balsanus, P. oaxacae, and P. mixtlanensis by the presence of long epiotic processes that extend beyond the epipleural ribs of the first vertebra, versus short epiotic processes not reaching the epipleural ribs of the first vertebra. Profundulus parentiae, new species, can be differentiated from P. punctatus by the presence of a dorso-ventrally compressed Meckel's cartilage with a relatively straight medial process and a narrow and strongly concave sesamoid articular, versus a dorso-ventrally expanded Meckel's cartilage with concave medial process and a wide and moderately concave sesamoid articular. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of molecular sequence data, the new species is recovered as the sister taxon to P. balsanus. The discovery and description of this new species in southeastern Mexico, raises the number of species from this region to five and suggests that this area has been an important center for diversification within this lineage of killifishes.


Profundulus punctatus (Günther, 1866)

Catalog of Fishes in the British Museum. British Museum, London., 6: 320. 

Type locality: Chiapam (near Champerico, subseq.), Guatemala.