Gnatholebias (Costa, 1998) 2 Arten 

Phylogeny and Classification of Rivulidae revisited: Origin and Evolution of Annualism and Miniaturization in Rivulid Fishes (Cyprinodontiformes: Aplocheilidei). J. Comp. Biol., 3 (1), December: 77.

Type-species: by original designation as Pterolebias zonatus Myers, 1935.

Type locality: Orinoco basin, Guarico state (without details), Venezuela.

Gnatholebias zonatus (Meyers 1935)

Four new Freshwater Fishes from Brazil, Venezuela, and Paraguay. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 48: 7.

Type locality: Orinoco basin, Guarico state (without details), Venezuela.

Synonyme:  Pterolebias zonatus   


Gnatholebias hoignei  (Thomerson, 1974)

Pterolebias hoignei, a new annual Cyprinodontid Fish from Venezuela, with a Redescription of Pterolebias zonatus. Copeia: 31, figs. 1-2.

Type locality: about 1 km north of Caño Benito, Estado Cojedes, Venezuela.

Synonyme:  Pterolebias hoignei  

Gnatholebias hoignei "Papelon VGV 2010-3"


Phylogeny and evolutionary radiation in seasonal rachovine killifishes: biogeographical and taxonomical implications               (Costa 2014)


Abstract A phylogenetic analysis combining available mitochondrial DNA sequences (total of 3,339 bp) and 161 morphological characters for 22 species of rachovine genera (Aphyolebias, Austrofundulus, Gnatholebias, Llanolebias, Micromoema, Moema, Neofundulus, Pterolebias, Rachovia, Renova, Terranatos, and Trigonectes), and 16 outgroups, supports monophyly of the group containing genera endemic to the Orinoco river basin and adjacent coastal drainages. Results of the present analysis are compared to previous studies. The tree topology indicates that the genera Moema and Rachovia as presently delimited are paraphyletic; consequently, Aphyolebias and Austrofundulus are respectively placed in the synonymy of Moema and Rachovia. This study also indicates that rachovines were in the past geographically restricted to the Amazonas-Paraguay area where diversification in niche exploitation was constrained by competition with sympatric members of older seasonal fish lineages. Rachovines later reached the Orinoco basin and adjacent coastal drainages by dispersal through the Paleo-Amazonas river basin, when major evolutionary radiation taken place.