Outdoor Killifisch



Fundulus (Lacépéde 1803)

Histoire Naturelle des Poissons. Plassan Ed., Paris, 5: 37.

Type-species: by subsequent designation (Jordan & Gilbert, 1877) as Fundulus "mudfish" Lacepède, 1803 

= Cobitis heteroclita (Linnaeus, 1766). 

Fundulus heteroclitus (Linnaeus 1766

Systema Naturae sive Regna tria Naturae, secundum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, cum Characteribus, Differentiis, Synonymis, Locis. Laurentii Salvii, Holmiae, Ed. 12, vol. 1: 500.

Type locality: Charles-Town (today Charleston), Carolina, U.S.A.



Fundulus julisia



Phylogeny, classification, and evolution of salinity of tolerance the North American topminnows and killifishes, family Fundulidae (Teleostei: Cyprinodontiformes). Fieldiana Life and Earth Sciences No. 7: 1-65.

Ghedotti, M. J. and M. P. Davis  2013 


The North American topminnows and killifishes in the Family Fundulidae (Cyprinodontiformes) are widely distributed in freshwater, brackish, and coastal marine environments of North America, the Yucatan Peninsula, and Bermuda. Fundulid fishes are often found in habitats that undergo substantial variation in environmental conditions. Salinity tolerance of fundulids varies substantially, and some estuarine species can survive in water that is more than three times marine salinity, whereas other freshwater species can only tolerate up to one-third marine salinity. While the Family Fundulidae has been the focus of numerous phylogenetic investigations, their evolutionary relationships to other cyprinodontiforms and the evolutionary history of species within the family are in need of further investigation with robust taxonomic sampling. In this study we provide the most data-inclusive current hypothesis of evolutionary relationships for the Fundulidae, based on a combination of morphological, karyological, behavioral, and nucleotide (two mitochondrial and two nuclear genes) data. We revise the classification of the family based on this evolutionary framework. Our results indicate that the Family Fundulidae is monophyletic, and the sister group to a clade composed of the Cyprinodontidae, Profundulidae, and Goodeidae within the Cyprinodontiformes. We recognize three genera, Leptolucania, Lucania, and Fundulus, and synonymize Adinia with Fundulus. We recognize four subgenera within genus Fundulus: Plancterus, Zygonectes, Fundulus, and a newly described subgenus containing the two Pacific-coast Fundulus species. Ancestral-state reconstructions of salinity tolerance indicate that there may have been as many as five independent shifts from high to low tolerance within the family, and that salinity tolerance evolution likely was an important factor in the biogeographic history of Fundulidae, shaping current fundulid distributions.


REVIEW PAPER Evolution, ecology and physiology of amphibious killifishes (Cyprinodontiformes)

A. J. Turko  and P. A. Wright.  Journal of Fish Biology (2015) 87, 815–835


The order Cyprinodontiformes contains an exceptional diversity of amphibious taxa, including at least 34 species from six families. These cyprinodontiforms often inhabit intertidal or ephemeral habitats characterized by low dissolved oxygen or otherwise poor water quality, conditions that have been hypothesized to drive the evolution of terrestriality. Most of the amphibious species are found in the Rivulidae, Nothobranchiidae and Fundulidae. It is currently unclear whether the pattern of amphibiousness observed in the Cyprinodontiformes is the result of repeated, independent evolutions, or stems from an amphibious common ancestor. Amphibious cyprinodontiforms leave water for a variety of reasons: some species emerse only briefly, to escape predation or capture prey, while others occupy ephemeral habitats by living for months at a time out of water. Fishes able to tolerate months of emersion must maintain respiratory gas exchange, nitrogen excretion and water and salt balance, but to date knowledge of the mechanisms that facilitate homeostasis on land is largely restricted to model species. This review synthesizes the available literature describing amphibious lifestyles in cyprinodontiforms, compares the behavioural and physiological strategies used to exploit the terrestrial environment and suggests directions and ideas for future research.



Untergattung Wileyichthys


Fundulus parvipinnis, Girard 1856

Observations upon a Collection of Fishes made on the Pacific coast of the United States, by Lieut. W.P. Trowbridge, U.S.A., for the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., 7: 154.

Type locality: San Diego, California, U.S.A.


Fundulus lima, Vaillant 1894

Sur une Collection de Poissons recueillis en Basse-California et dans le Golfe par M. Léon Diguet. Bull. Soc. Philomatique Paris, 8, 6: 71.

Type locality: San Ignacio de Caracamande, central Baja California, Mexico.


Untergattung Plancterus, Garman 1895


Fundulus kansae, Girard 1859b

The Cyprinodonts. Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard, 19 (1): 103, pl. 2 (fig. 10).

Type locality: Kansas state (without details), U.S.A.

Fundulus zebrinus, Jordan & Gilbert 1883

A Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., 16: 891.


Type locality: between Fort Defiance (35.75N 109.11W) and Fort Union (35.92N 105.03W), (eastern) New Mexico state (probably in an upper tributary of Rio Grande del Norte or of Rio Brazos), U.S.A.

Fundulus zebrinus  "Pease River Bridge at Copper Breaks State Park"


Untergattung Zygonectes, Agassiz 1854


Fundulus chrysotus, (Günther 1866)

Catalog of Fishes in the British Museum. British Museum, London., 6: 317.

Type locality: Charleston, South Carolina, U.S.A.


Fundulus luciae, Baird 1855

Report on the Fishes observed on the Coasts of New Jersey and Long Island during the Summer of 1854. Ann. Rept. Smithsonian Inst., 344.


Type locality: Robinson's landing, Peck's beach, opposite Beesley's Point, Cape May county, New Jersey, U.S.A.

Fundulus luciae "Little-River SC"

Fundulus xenicus, Jordan & Gilbert 1882

Notes on fishes observed about Pensacola, Florida, and Galveston, Texas, with description of new species. Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 5 (no. 282): 241-307.

Distribution: Southeastern U.S.A.


Fundulus cingulatus, Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1846

Histoire naturelle des Poissons.

Librairie de la Société Géologique de France, Bertrand P. Ed., Paris, 18: 197.

Type locality: southeastern U.S.A. (without details ; type locality of auroguttatus subsequently assigned).


Fundulus cingulatus "3 Mile Creek-Elberta"


Fundulus rubrifrons, (Jordan 1880)

Description of new Species of North American Fishes. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 3: 237.


Type locality: Saint Sebastian river (today Sebastian river), southeastern Florida, U.S.A.

Fundulus rubrifrons "Fargo"


Fundulus sciadicus, Cope 1865

Partial Catalog of Coldblooded Vertebrata of Michigan. Part II. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., 17: 78.


Type locality: Platte river, Nebraska, U.S.A.

Fundulus sciadicus "Agate Colorado"



 Fundulus notatus, (Rafinesque 1820)

Ichthyologica Ohiensis or natural History of the Fishes inhabiting the river Ohio and its Tributary streams. W.G. Hunt, Lexington, Kentucky: 86.

Type locality: Cumberland river (also Little river, one of its branch), southern Kentucky, U.S.A.


Fundulus olivaceus, (Storer 1846)

Dr. D.H. Storer read a Description of a Fish from Alabama, forwarded, with a Drawing, by Charles A. Hentz, Florence, Alabama. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 2 (1845-1848): 51.

Type locality: Florence, Alabama, U.S.A.


Fundulus euryzonus, Suttkus & Cashner 1981

A new Species of Cyprinodontid Fish Genus Fundulus (Zygonectes), from Lake Ponchartrain Tributaries in Louisiana and Mississippi. Bull. Alabama Mus. Nat. Hist., 6: 2, figs. 1a, 2a, 3a.

Type locality: East Fork Big creek, tributary of Tangipahoa river, 11.2 km east of Arcola (Louisiana Hwy 1054), Tangipahoa Parish, Louisiana state, U.S.A.


Fundulus dispar, (Agassiz 1854)

Notes on a Collection of Fishes from the Southern Bend of the Tennessee River in the State of Alabama. Am. J. Sci. Arts, ser. 2, 17 (50): 353.

Type locality: opposite St. Louis, Missouri (today East St. Louis, Illinois), U.S.A.


Fundulus blairae, Wiley & Hall 1975

Fundulus blairae, a new Species of the Fundulus nottii Species Complex (Teleostei, Cyprinodontidae). Amer. Mus. Novitates, 2577: 3, figs. 1-2, 3a.

Type locality: Neville Bayou at Texas highway 105, 2.6 miles (4.2 km) east of crossing of FM 223 and Texas 105, Liberty county, Texas, U.S.A.


Fundulus lineolatus, (Agassiz 1854),

Notes on a Collection of Fishes from the Southern Bend of the Tennessee River in the State of Alabama. Am. J. Sci. Arts, ser. 2, 17 (50): 353.

Type locality: vicinity of Augusta, Georgia state, U.S.A.

Fundulus escambiae, (Bollman 1887)

Notes on a collection of fishes from the Escambia River, with description of a new species of Zygonectes (Zygonectes escambiae). Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 9 (no. 585): 462-465.

Distribution: Southeastern U.S.A: coastal plain streams, Florida to Alabama.


Fundulus nottii, (Agassiz 1854)

Notes on a Collection of Fishes from the Southern Bend of the Tennessee River in the State of Alabama. Am. J. Sci. Arts, ser. 2, 17 (50): 353.

Type locality: Mobile, Alabama state, U.S.A.




Untergattung Fundulus, (Lacépéde, 1803)


Fundulus majalis, (Walbaum 1792)

Petri Artedi sueci Genera Piscium. Ichthyologiae. Pars III. Crypes Walida: 12.

Type locality: Long island, New York, north America (U.S.A.).

Fundulus persimilis, Miller 1955

An annotated List of the American Cyprinodontid Fishes of the genus Fundulus, with the Description of Fundulus persimilis from Yucatan. Occasional Papers Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 568: 13, pl. 1.

Type locality: río Lagartos, near the settlement of Lagartos, at the tip of Yucatán, Mexico.

Fundulus similis, (Baird & Girard 1853)

Description of new Species of Fishes collected by Mr. John H. Clark, on the U.S. and Mexican Boundary Survey under Lt. Col. Jus. D. Graham. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., 6: 389.

Type locality: near Indianola, Texas, U.S.A.

Fundulus seminolis, Girard 1859a

Ichthyological Notices. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., 11: 60.

Type locality: Palatka, eastern Florida, U.S.A.

Fundulus rathbuni, Jordan & Meek in Jordan 1896

Descriptions of fourteen Species of Freshwater Fishes collected by the U.S. Fish Commision in the summer of 1888. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 11 (723): 356, pl. 44 (fig. 7).

Type locality: Allemance creek, Greensborough, north Carolina, U.S.A.  


Fundulus diaphanus, (Lesueur 1817)

Descriptions of four new Species, and two Varieties of the Genus Hydrargira.

J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., 1: 130.

Type locality: Saratoga lake, New York (and Pipe Creek, Maryland), U.S.A.

Fundulus waccamensis, Hubbs & Raney 1946

Endemic Fish Fauna of Lake Waccamaw, North Carolina. Miscellaneous Papers Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 65: 12, pl. 1 (figs. 1-2).

Type locality: northern shore of lake Waccamaw, Columbus County, north Carolina, U.S.A.


Fundulus albolineatus, Gilbert 1891

Report of Explorations made in Alabama during 1889, with Notes on the Fishes of the Tennessee, Alabama, and Escambia Rivers. Bull. U.S. Fish Comm., 9: 149, pl. 43 (fig. 1).

Type locality: Spring creek, Huntsville, Alabama, U.S.A.


Fundulus julisia, Williams & Etnier 1982

Description of a new Species, Fundulus julisia, with a Redescription of Fundulus albolineatus and a Diagnosis of the Subgenus Xenisma (Teleostei: Cyprinodontidae). Occasional Papers Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 102: 11, fig. 2.

Type locality: tributary to West Fork Hickory creek at Tennessee highway 55, Summitville, Coffee county, Tennessee, U.S.A.

Fundulus julisia


Fundulus stellifer, (Jordan 1877)

A partial Synopsis of the Fishes of upper Georgia. Ann. Lyc. Nat. Hist. New York, 11, n° 11-12 (June): 322.

Type locality: Silver creek, tributary of Etowah river (also Lavender and Rocky creeks, resp. tributary of Oostanaula and Coosa rivers), Georgia, U.S.A.


Fundulus catenatus, (Storer 1846)

A Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. Mem. Amer. Acad. Arts & Sci. Boston, 2: 430.

Type locality: Tennessee river at Florence, Alabama, U.S.A.


Fundulus bifax, Cashner, Rogers & Grady 1988

Fundulus bifax, a new Species of the Subgenus Xenisma, from the Tallapoosa and Coosa River Systems of Alabama and Georgia. Copeia, (3): 675, fig. 1.

Type locality: Tallapoosa river, 5.3 km south-southeast of Daviston, Tallapoosa county, Alabama, U.S.A.

Fundulus jenkinsi, (Evermann 1892)

A Report upon Investigations made in Texas in 1891.

Bull. U.S. Fish Comm. for 1891, 11 (2), 1891: 86, pl. 36 (fig. 2).

Type locality: Dickinson Bayou, near Galveston, Texas, U.S.A.


Fundulus confluentus, Goode & Bean in Goode 1879

A preliminary Catalog of the Fishes of the St. John's River and the east Coast of Florida, with Descriptions of a new Genus and three new Species. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 2: 118.

Type locality: lake Monroe, Florida, U.S.A.


Fundulus pulvereus, (Evermann 1892)

A Report upon Investigations made in Texas in 1891.

Bull. U.S. Fish Comm. for 1891, 11 (2), 1891: 85, pl. 36 (fig. 1).

Type locality: Dickinson Bayou, Dickinson (also, Buffalo Bayou, Houston and the mouth of Oso Creek, Corpus Christi), Texas, U.S.A.


Fundulus heteroclitus, Linnaeus 1766

Systema Naturae sive Regna tria Naturae, secundum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, cum Characteribus, Differentiis, Synonymis, Locis. Laurentii Salvii, Holmiae, Ed. 12, vol. 1: 500.

Type locality: Charles-Town (today Charleston), Carolina, U.S.A.


Fundulus bermudae, Günther 1874

Descriptions of new Species of Fishes in the British Museum. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., 4 (14): 370.

Type locality: Bermuda (without details), Atlantic ocean, U.S.A.


Fundulus relictus, Able & Felley 1988

Bermuda Fundulus (Pisces: Fundulidae) revisited: Taxonomy of the endemic Forms. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., 140 (2): 112, fig. 6.

Type locality: Lover's lake, Saint George's island, Bermuda islands.

Fundulus philpisteri, Garcia-Ramirez, Contreras-Balderas & Lozano-Vilano 2007

Fundulus philpisteri sp. nv. (Teleostei: Fundulidae) from the Río San Fernando basin, Nuevo León, México. Pp. 13-19 in:M. de L. Lozano-Vilano & S. Contreras-Balderas (eds) Studies on North American dessert fishes in honor of E.P. (Phil) Pister, conservationist. University de Autónoma de Nuevo León, Mexico. Studies North Amererican Desert Fishes: 13-19.

Distribution: San Ignacio springs and neighboring springs, Linares, Nuevo León, Mexico.


Fundulus grandis, Baird & Girard 1853

Description of new Species of Fishes collected by Mr. John H. Clark, on the U.S. and Mexican Boundary Survey under Lt. Col. Jus. D. Graham. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., 6: 389.

Type locality: near Indianola, Texas, U.S.A.

Fundulus grandissimus, Hubbs 1936

Fishes of the Yucatan Peninsula. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Pub., 457: 209, pl. 2 (figs. 3-4).

Type locality: Progreso, Yucatán, Mexico.