Kryptolebias - Arten 


Kryptolebias, new name, is proposed to replace Cryptolebias Costa, 2004, preoccupied by Cryptolebias Gaudant, 1978, a monotypic genus of European fossil fish. As a consequence, Kryptolebiatinae is erected, substituting Cryptolebiatinae Costa.


Cryptolebias Costa, 2004 was recently erected to include an assemblage of species previously placed in Rivulus Poey, 1960. This assemblage was hypothesized to be the sister group of the clade including all other rivulids, receiving subfamily status, and consequently Cryptolebias was formally designated as the type-genus of the Cryptolebiatinae (Costa, 2004). However, Cryptolebias is preoccupied.

The name was first published for a monotypic genus of fossil cyprinodontoid fish from Europe by Gaudant

(1978). Herein, it is proposed the name Kryptolebias as a substitute generic name for Cryptolebias Costa, 2004, with Fundulus brasiliensis Valenciennes, 1821 as the typespecies. Consequentely, it is proposed the new subfamily name Kryptolebiatinae for the family level taxon containing Kryptolebias, as the type-genus.

Included species. Kryptolebias brasiliensis (Valenciennes),



More than meets the eye: syntopic and morphologically similar mangrove killifish species show different mating systems and patterns of genetic structure along the Brazilian coast

Waldir M. Berbel-Filho, Andrey Tatarenkov, Helder M. V. Espírito-Santo,

Mateus G. Lira, Carlos Garcia de Leaniz, Sergio M. Q. Lima & Sofia Consuegra (2020)


Different mating systems can strongly affect the extent of genetic diversity and population structure among species. Given the increased effects of genetic drift on reduced population size, theory predicts that species undergoing self-fertilisation should have greater population structure than outcrossed species; however, demographic dynamics may affect this scenario. The mangrove killifish clade is composed of the two only known examples of self-fertilising species among vertebrates (Kryptolebias marmoratus and Kryptolebias hermaphroditus). A third species in this clade, Kryptolebias ocellatus, inhabits mangrove forests in southeast Brazil; however, its mating system and patterns of genetic structure have been rarely explored. Here, we examined the genetic structure and phylogeographic patterns of K. ocellatus along its distribution, using mitochondrial DNA and microsatellites to compare its patterns of genetic structure with the predominantly selfing and often-syntopic, K. hermaphroditus. Our results indicate that K. ocellatus reproduces mainly by outcrossing, with no current evidence of selfing, despite being an androdioecious species. Our results also reveal a stronger population subdivision in K. ocellatus compared to K. hermaphroditus, contrary to the theoretical predictions based on reproductive biology of the two species. Our findings indicate that, although morphologically similar, K. ocellatus and K. hermaphroditus had remarkably different evolutionary histories when colonising the same mangrove areas in southeastern Brazil, with other factors (e.g., time of colonisation, dispersal/establishment capacity) having more profound effects on the current population structuring of those species than differences in mating systems.



The Complete Genome Sequences of three species from the killifish genus Kryptolebias (Rivulidae, Cyprinodontiformes)

Waldir M. Berbel-Filho, Stacy Pirro, Andrew Thompson, Sergio M. Q. Lima, Sofia Consuegra, Ricardo Betancur  2023




The killifish genus Kryptolebias currently contains seven recognized species found in freshwater and mangrove microhabitats in South and Central America, the Caribbean, and Florida. Kryptolebias species have several unique features. Beyond its amphibious nature, two of the Kryptolebias species (K. marmoratus and K. hermaphroditus sensu Costa 2011) are the only known vertebrates capable of self-fertilization. Although reference genomes for self-fertilizing species are readily available, a complete understanding of the genomic basis leading to the transition in mating systems in the genus requires more genomic resources at a broader taxonomic level. Here, we present the complete genome sequences for three Kryptolebias species from Brazil: the endangered freshwater species Kryptolebias brasiliensis and Kryptolebias gracilis and the androdiecious but obligate outcrossing Kryptolebias ocellatus (sensu Costa 2011). The raw data and assembled genomes are available in GenBank.


Kryptolebias   (7 Arten)


Kryptolebias campelloi (Costa, 1990)

Description d'une nouvelle Espèce du Genre Rivulus (Cyprinodontiformes, Rivulidae) de l'Amazone orientale. Rev. fr. Aquariol. Herpétol., 17 (2): 42, fig. 1.

Type locality: near Primavera, south of Amazone delta, Pará state, northeastern Brasil.

Kryptolebias bonairensis (Hoedeman 1958) Synonym of Kryptolebias marmoratus

Kryptolebias, a subsitute name for Cryptolebias Costa, 2004 and Kryptolebiatinae, a subsitute name for Cryptolebiatinae Costa, 2004 (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae). Neotrop. Ichthyol. 2(2):107-

Rivulid Fishes of the Antilles. Stud. Fauna Curaçao, 32: 117.


Type locality: Pos di Pepe, Bonaire, Netherland Antilles (about 100 km off the Venezuelan coast).


Kryptolebias brasiliensis (Valenciennes, 1821)

Recherches sur les Poissons fluviatiles de l'Amérique équinoxiale. In: F.H.A. Humboldt & A. Valenciennes. Voyage de Humboldt et Bonpland. Schoell & Dufour Eds. Paris. Zoologie, Vol. II.: 163, pl. 52 (figs. 3, 7).

Type locality: Brasil (without details ; actually, surroundings of Rio de Janeiro, subseq.).


Kryptolebias garciai (De la Cruz & Dubitsky 1976)

Dos Nuevas Especies de Peces dulceacuicolas del Genero Rivulus Poey (Cyprinodontidae) de Cuba e Isla de Pinos. Poeyana, 155: 4.

Type locality: Matanzas, Varadero, Cuba.

Kryptolebias gracilis  (Costa, 2007)

Dos Nuevas Especies de Peces dulceacuicolas del Genero Rivulus Poey (Cyprinodontidae) de Cuba e Isla de Pinos. Poeyana, 155: 4.

Type locality: Matanzas, Varadero, Cuba.


Kryptolebias ocellatus, Hensel 1868

Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Wirbelthiere Südbrasiliens. (Fortsetzung). Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 34 (pt 1): 323-375.

Type locality: Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brasil.


Kryptolebias marmoratus, (Poey, 1880)

Revisio piscium cubensium. Anal. Soc. Espanola Hist. Nat., 9: 248.

Type locality: Cuba (if not from the USA), upper Caribbean archipelago (without details ; probably close to Habana).


Kryptolebias hermaphroditus, (Costa 2011) Synonym of Kryptolebias ocellatus 

First record of a male of Kryptolebias hermaphroditus Costa, 2011 (Cyprinodontiformes: Cynolebiidae)


During an ichthyological survey in September 2015 at the Ceará-Mirim River estuary, Rio Grande do Norte State, northeastern Brazil, we collected a male of Kryptolebias hermaphroditus , a cynolebiid species that had been previously described as containing exclusively self-fertilizing hermaphrodites. This is the first record of a male in this species, over 140 years after the discovery of the mangrove rivulid species from Brazil. Our discovery reinforces the need for more studies in K. hermaphroditus , as well as the potential of this species as a model for evolutionary studies due to its unique mating system.


Kryptolebias sepia Vermeulen & Hrbek, 2005

Kryptolebias sepia n. sp. (Actinopterygii: Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae), a new Killifish from the Tapanahony River drainage in southeast Surinam. Zootaxa, 928: 4, figs. 1-2.

Type locality: 5 km down river from Palumeu on the right bank, a hunting trail leads to a creek 15 minutes walk from the river, Upper Marowijne system, Tapanahony River, (southern) Suriname.



A new genus of miniature cynolebiasine from the Atlantic Forest and alternative biogeographical explanations for seasonal killifish distribution patterns in

South America (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae)  (Costa 2014)


Vertebrate zoology 64 (1): 23–33 / 16.05.2014


Abstract The analysis of 78 morphological characters for 16 species representing all the lineages of the tribe Cynopoecilini and three out-groups, indicates that the incertae sedis miniature species ‘Leptolebias’ leitaoi Cruz & Peixoto is the sister group of a clade comprising the genera Leptolebias, Campellolebias, and Cynopoecilus, consequently recognised as the only member of a new genus. Mucurilebias gen. nov. is diagnosed by seven autapomorphies: eye occupying great part of head side, low number of caudal-fin rays (21), distal portion of epural much broader than distal portion of parhypural, an oblique red bar through opercle in both sexes, isthmus bright red in males, a white stripe on the distal margin of the dorsal fin in males, and a red stripe on the distal margin of the anal fin in males. Mucurilebias leitaoi is an endangered seasonal species endemic to the Mucuri river basin. The biogeographical analysis of genera of the subfamily Cynolebiasinae using a dispersal-vicariance, event-based parsimony approach indicates that distribution of South American killifishes may be broadly shaped by dispersal events. The analysis supports south-eastern Brazilian coastal plains as the centre of dispersal for cynolebiasine killifishes. Alternative biogeographical explanations are compared and possible dispersal routes and means of dispersal are discussed.