Leptolebias (Myers, 1952)   

Annual Fishes. Aquarium Journal, 23: 140.

Type-species:  Cynopoecilus marmoratus (Ladiges, 1934).

Leptolebias marmoratus (Ladiges 1934)

Leptolebias sicheleri  (Miranda Ribeiro 1939)   Synonym of Leptolebias marmoratus

Leptolebias zingiberinus, ( Myers 1942)             Synonym of Leptolebias marmoratus


Leptolebias marmoratus (Ladiges, W. 1934)

Cynopoecilus marmoratus Ladiges. Das Aquarium, Berlin: 74 fig. (page 73)

Costa, W.J.E.M., 2002. Leptolebias marmoratus (Cyprinodonotiformes: Rivulidae: Cynolebiatinae): rediscovery and redescription of a rare, miniaturized forest dwelling seasonal fish from southeastern Brazil.

Type locality:  Rio de Janeiro (state), Brasil (near Raiz da Serra, today Inhomirim, subseq.).



A new genus of miniature cynolebiasine from the Atlantic Forest and alternative biogeographical explanations for seasonal killifish distribution patterns in South America (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae)  (Costa 2014)


Abstract The analysis of 78 morphological characters for 16 species representing all the lineages of the tribe Cynopoecilini and three out-groups, indicates that the incertae sedis miniature species ‘Leptolebias’ leitaoi Cruz & Peixoto is the sister group of a clade comprising the genera Leptolebias, Campellolebias, and Cynopoecilus, consequently recognised as the only member of a new genus. Mucurilebias gen. nov. is diagnosed by seven autapomorphies: eye occupying great part of head side, low number of caudal-fin rays (21), distal portion of epural much broader than distal portion of parhypural, an oblique red bar through opercle in both sexes, isthmus bright red in males, a white stripe on the distal margin of the dorsal fin in males, and a red stripe on the distal margin of the anal fin in males. Mucurilebias leitaoi is an endangered seasonal species endemic to the Mucuri river basin. The biogeographical analysis of genera of the subfamily Cynolebiasinae using a dispersal-vicariance, event-based parsimony approach indicates that distribution of South American killifishes may be broadly shaped by dispersal events. The analysis supports south-eastern Brazilian coastal plains as the centre of dispersal for cynolebiasine killifishes. Alternative biogeographical explanations are compared and possible dispersal routes and means of dispersal are discussed.


Comparative morphology and classification of South American cynopoeciline killifishes (Cyprinodontiformes: Aplocheilidae), with notes on family-group names used for aplocheiloids    

(Costa 2016)


Abstract A comparative morphological study involving all cynopoeciline killifishes indicates that Leptolebias marmoratus is more closely related to species of the genera Campellolebias and Cynopoecilus than to other species of Leptolebias, and that Mucurilebias leitaoi is the sister group of a clade comprising all other cynopoecilines. Leptopanchax, new genus, is described to place species that share urogenital papilla in males separated from the anal-fin origin by broad interspace, basal portion of the urogenital papilla in males not forming a pronounced wide structure, absence of thickened tissue on the basal portion of the anal fin in males, caudal fin oval and symmetrical in males, anterior proximal radials of the anal fin not placed in close proximity in males, presence of a broad iridescent golden stripe on the distal zone of the dorsal fin in males, and caudal fin with vermiculate dark red marks in males. Poecilopanchax, new subgenus of Cynopoecilus, is diagnosed by having the basihyal narrow, about rectangular, the interarcual element of the dorsal branchial arch ossified, the uncinate process of the third epibranchial distinctively widened, a long filamentous ray on the tip of the anal fin in males, caudal fin lanceolate in males, dark bars on the flank in females, branchiostegal region with intense red pigmentation in males, a brownish red stripe on the basal portion of the dorsal fin in males, and dark red marks extending to the antero-distal margin of the dorsal fin in males. This study follows an old classificatory scheme in which all aplocheiloids are placed in a single family, the Aplocheilidae.


Genus Leptolebias

Included species, distribution and habitat. A single species, L. marmoratus (Ladiges, 1934), found in temporary channels within dense rain forest, in the floodplains of rivers draining into the Baía de Guanabara, south-eastern Brazil (Costa, 2002b).