Tlaloc  (4 Arten)

Tlaloc candalarius (Hubbs, 1924)

Tlaloc hildebrandi (Miller, 1950)

Tlaloc labialis (Günther, 1866)

Tlaloc mexicanus,  Álvarez  & Carranza 1951  Synonym of Tlaloc labialis

Tlaloc portillorum Matamoros & Schaefer, 2010


Phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of the Mesoamerican endemic freshwater fish family Profundulidae (Cyprinodontiformes: Actinopterygii)

Felipe Morcilloa, Claudia Patricia Ornelas-Garcíab , Lourdes Alcaraza, Wilfredo   A. Matamorosc, Ignacio Doadrioa, 2016


Freshwater fishes of Profundulidae, which until now was composed of two subgenera, represent one of the few extant fish families endemic to Mesoamerica. In this study we investigated the phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of the eight recognized extant species (from 37 populations) of Profundulidae using three mitochondrial and one nuclear gene markers (∼2.9 Kbp). We applied a Bayesian species delimitation method as a first approach to resolving speciation patterns within Profundulidae considering two different scenarios, eight-species and twelve-species models, obtained in a previous phylogenetic analysis. Based on our results, each of the two subgenera was resolved as monophyletic, with a remarkable molecular divergence of 24.5% for mtDNA and 7.8% for nDNA uncorrected p distances, and thus we propose that they correspond to separate genera. Moreover, we propose a conservative taxonomic hypothesis with five species within Profundulus and three within Tlaloc, although both eight-species and twelve-species models were highly supported by the bayesian species delimitation analysis, providing additional evidence of higher taxonomic diversity than currently recognized in this family. According to our divergence time estimates, the family originated during the Upper Oligocene 26 Mya, and Profundulus and Tlaloc diverged in the Upper Oligocene or Lower Miocene about 20 Mya.


Molecular data support the monophyly of Profundulus and Tlaloc.

Profundulus and Tlaloc are proposed as distinct genera.

Bayesian species delimitation method support greater number of species in the family.

Two different episodes of diversification was proposed in the family.


Tlaloc candalarius (Hubbs, 1924)

Studies of the Fishes of the Order Cyprinodontes. Misc. Papers Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 13: 15.

Type locality: Candalaria, near the Mexican boundary of Guatemala, 6 leagues distant from (ca. 18 airline km north north west of) Nenton, Guatemala, altitude 1100 m.


Tlaloc hildebrandi (Miller, 1950)

Profundulus hildebrandi, a new Cyprinodontid Fish from Chiapas, Mexico. Copeia: 22, pl. 1. 

Type locality: lake Maria Eugenia, San Cristóbal de las Casas, Atlantic drainage of Chiapas, Mexico, 2200 m altitude (today dried out).


Estimating the population size and habitat quality of the Endangered fish Tlaloc hildebrandi in Mexico Miriam Soria-Barreto1,2, Alfonso A. González-Díaz2,*, Rocío Rodiles-Hernández2 , Claudia Patricia Ornelas-García3 


ABSTRACT: The Chiapas killifish Tlaloc hildebrandi is an Endangered and endemic fish that inhabits wetlands, mountain streams, and rivers in Chiapas, Mexico. This species is considered vulnerable due to accelerated human population growth in its distribution range and the species’ low genetic diversity. To evaluate the conservation status of the species, we assessed habitat quality and estimated the population size of the remnant populations in the Amarillo River subbasin using the capture−mark−recapture technique. Our results showed substantial levels of habitat perturbation in the Amarillo River subbasin, including water pollution with a high presence of coliforms, the presence of exotic species, and modified habitat quality, which has resulted in a decrease in population sizes and the extirpation of certain populations. Our estimates of the population sizes of T. hildebrandi based on the Jolly-Seber model showed dramatically low population sizes, ranging from 93 to 208 fish across sites. Gross population sizes varied temporally, and the location of these populations in isolated sites may increase demographic stochasticity. To preserve some of these populations, urgent conservation and management activities must be implemented. We suggest the establishment of conservation areas for the species in the Fogótico River (which has the best water quality and habitat conditions) and habitat restoration in the protected areas of La Kisst and María Eugenia Mountain Wetlands, where populations of T. hildebrandi could be reintroduced. Finally, we propose the implementation of ex situ conservation programs to maintain genetic diversity and prevent local extinctions of the most vulnerable populations.


Tlaloc labialis (Günther, 1866)

Catalog of Fishes in the British Museum. British Museum, London., 6: 319.

Type locality: río San Geronimo (today rio San Jeronimo, at San Jeronimo city, subseq.) (also Ysabal, lake Ysabal and "Guatemala" at rio Negro or rio Chixoy), Guatemala.



Tlaloc portillorum Matamoros & Schaefer, 2010

A new species of Profundulus (Cyprinodontiformes: Profundulidae) from the Honduran central highlands. Journal of Fish Biology v. 76 (no. 6): 1498-1507.

Abstract: A new species of Profundulus, Profundulus portillorum, from the Honduran central highlands is described. Profundulus portillorum belongs to the Profundulus labialis species group and is distinct from the Profundulus punctatus species group in that it lacks a humeral spot and less than half of the caudal fin is scaled. Within the P. labialis species group, P. portillorum has a more slender body, smaller eye, fewer anal rays, caudal rays and lateral-line scales than other species. Forty-one specimens were collected around emergent vegetation in the margins of two small (2-5 m in width, 20-40 cm in depth), high-elevation (1300 m) tributaries of the Río Calam within the Río Ulúa drainage. These specimens represent the easternmost collection of any Profundulus and the first collection of any member of the P. labialis species group from Honduras.