Spectrolebias (Costa and  Nielsen  1997)  9 Arten

A new genus and species of annual fish (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae) from the Araguaia basin, central Brazil. Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 7 (no. 3): 257-265.


Type species Spectrolebias semiocellatus Costa & Nielsen


Type locality: close to rio Formoso, rio Araguaia basin, Formoso do Araguaia, Tocantins, Brasil. 






Spectrolebias bellidoi D. T. B. Nielsen & Pillet, 2015

Spectrolebias brousseaui D. T. B. Nielsen, 2013

Spectrolebias chacoensis (L. H. Amato, 1986)

Spectrolebias costai (Lazara, 1991)

Spectrolebias filamentosus (W. J. E. M. Costa, Barrera & Sarmiento, 1997)

Spectrolebias gracilis  (Wilson J. E. M. Costa, Pedro F. Amorim 2018)

Spectrolebias inaequipinnatus (W. J. E. M. Costa & G. C. Brasil, 2008)

Spectrolebias reticulatus (W. J. E. M. Costa & D. T. B. Nielsen, 2003)

Spectrolebias semiocellatus W. J. E. M. Costa & D. T. B. Nielsen, 1997


Descriptive morphology and phylogenetic relationships among species of the Neotropical annual killifish genera Nematolebias and Simpsonichthys (Cyprinodontiformes: Aplocheiloidei: Rivulidae)    Costa 2006



Structures of the external morphology and skeleton of the annual fish genera Nematolebias and Simpsonichthys are described and illustrated. Phylogenetic relationships among all included species of both genera and other cynolebiatins are estimated, based on 116 morphological characters in a total of 50 terminal taxa. Nematolebias is hypothesized to be the sister group of a clade including Simpsonichthys, Austrolebias, Megalebias, and Cynolebias, which is diagnosed by ventral portion of mesopterygoid not overlapping quadrate, third neural spine approximately as wide as fourth neural spine, ventral condyle of coracoid narrow, scales slightly extending over anal-fin base, loss of vomerine teeth, loss of neuromast anterior to infraorbital series, ventral process of the angulo-articular short and narrow, and dorsal portion of cleithrum elongated. Simpsonichthys is divided into five subgenera, including Spectrolebias, previously considered a separate genus, Simpsonichthys, and three new subgenera, Xenurolebias, Ophthalmolebias, and Hypsolebias. Monophyly of Simpsonichthys is supported by a small pointed dorsal process on the palatine, unbranched fin rays on the tip of the dorsal and anal fins in males, and frontal E-scales overlapped.


Spectrolebias bellidoi D. T. B. Nielsen & Pillet, 2015 

Spectrolebias bellidoi, a new annual fish (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae: Cynolebiatinae) from the upper Río Grande basin, Amazon basin, Bolivia. aqua, International Journal of Ichthyology, 21 (4): 180-187.


Spectrolebias bellidoi n. sp. is described from a temporary pool from the upper Río Grande, Río Mamoré basin, Departamento Santa Cruz, Bolivia. The new species is distinguished from all congeners by the unique shape of the female’s anal fin, which is composed of two parts, a rounded anterior area, and a posterior portion (from the 14th-15th rays onwards), gradually decreasing in size (vs. entire anal fin with a rounded outline) and a higher number of analfin rays (30 vs. 21-28), in females. It can be additionally distinguished from all congeners, with the exception of S. reticulatus and S. pilleti, by the position of the dorsal fin, which has its origin anterior to the origin of the anal fin in



Spectrolebias brousseaui D. T. B. Nielsen, 2013

Spectrolebias brousseaui (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae: Cynolebiatinae), a new annual fish from the upper río Mamoré basin, Bolivia. 




Spectrolebias brousseaui is described from a temporary pool from the upper río Mamoré basin, Departamento Santa Cruz, Bolivia. The new species is distinguished from all congeners, by the overall dark blue coloration on the posterior two-thirds of body with bright blue iridescent spots vertically aligned in males. Spectrolebias brousseaui differs from all other species of the genus, except S. filamentosus, for having pelvic fins separated by a space (vs. pelvic fins in contact), long filaments at the tip of the dorsal and anal fins in males (vs. absence of filaments or presence only on dorsal fin in S. semiocellatus and S. inaequipinnatus, or the presence on the anal fin in S. chacoensis), and presence of contact organs on the scales of the flanks in males (vs. absence of contact organs on flanks in all remaining Spectrolebias species).

Spectrolebias broussaeu "West of San Jose"

Spectrolebias brousseaui "BFB 2012/9"


Spectrolebias chacoensis (L. H. Amato, 1986)

Seis Especies nuevas del Genero Cynolebias Stdr, 1876, de Uruguay y Paraguay (Cyprinodontiformes, Rivulidae). Com. Zool. Mus. Hist. Nat. Montevideo, 11 (162): 10, pl. 5 (fig. 8), pl. 6 (fig. 9).

Type locality: Charca Topógrafo Acevedo, 14 km from radio command n°2 Americo Picco, 624 km northwest of Asuncion towards Mariscal Estigarribia, Nueva Asunción, Paraguay.

Spectrolebias chacoensis "PYEH 2006-15"


Spectrolebias costai (Lazara, 1991)

Cynolebias lacortei, Cynolebias costai and Cynolebias aruana, three new Species of Cloud Fish from Brazil (Teleostei ; Cyprinodontiform ; Rivulidae). J. Amer. Killifish Assoc., 23 (5), (1990): 144, figs. 3, 5.

Type locality: Aruana, Goiás state, (western) Brasil.

Spectrolebias costai "Sao Miguel do Araguaia RR 2003/08"


Spectrolebias filamentosus (W. J. E. M. Costa, Barrera & Sarmiento, 1997)

Simpsonichthys filamentosus (Cyprinodontiformes, Rivulidae), une nouvelle Espèce des Llanuras Benianas, Bassin du Rio Mamoré, Bolivia. Rev. fr. Aquariol. Herpétol., 24 (3-4): 84, figs. 1-2.

Type locality: ca. 60 km north of Ascencion de Guarayos, road Santa Cruz-Trinidad, near rio San Pablo, rio Mamoré basin, central Bolivia.

















Spectrolebias filamentosus 'ABPV 13/3'

Spectrolebias inaequipinnatus (W. J. E. M. Costa & G. C. Brasil, 2008)

Simpsonichthys inaequipinnatus, a new seasonal killifish from the Tocantins River basin, Brazil (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae). Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat. 19(3):245-248.

South America: known only from a seasonal pool in the Tocantins River floodplains in Brazil.


Spectrolebias gracilis  (Wilson J. E. M. Costa, Pedro F. Amorim 2018)

A new miniature cryptic species of the seasonal killifish genus Spectrolebias from the Tocantins River basin, central Brazil (Cyprinodontiformes, Aplocheilidae)



The miniature seasonal killifish Spectrolebias costae, first described for the middle Araguaia River basin, has been also recorded from two areas in the middle Tocantins River basin, from where male specimens exhibit some differences in their colour pattern. Analyses directed to species delineation (GMYC and bPTP), using a fragment of the mitochondrial gene COI, strongly support two species, S. costae from the Araguaia River basin and a new species from the Tocantins River basin. Spectrolebias gracilis sp. n. is described on the basis of specimens collected from two localities separated by about 530 km, Canabrava River floodplains near Alvorada do Tocantins and Tocantins River floodplains near Palmeirante. Field inventories were unsuccessful in finding additional populations in the region, which is attributed to the high environmental degradation, including several large dams that have permanently inundated typical killifish habitats. Spectrolebias gracilis is member of a clade also including S. costae, S. inaequipinnatus, and S. semiocellatus, diagnosed by having the dorsal and anal fins in males with iridescent dots restricted to their basal portion, caudal fin in males hyaline, and caudal-fin base with two pairs of neuromasts. Within this clade, a single miniaturisation event is supported for the most recent common ancestor of the subclade comprising S. costae and S. gracilis, which differ from other congeners by reaching only about 20 mm standard length as maximum adult size.




Spectrolebias reticulatus (W. J. E. M. Costa & D. T. B. Nielsen, 2003)

Simpsonichthys reticulatus n. sp. (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae):a new annual fish from the Rio Xingu flood plains, Brazilian Amazon. Aqua, Journal of Ichthyology and Aquatic Biology, 7 (3): 120, figs. 1-2.

Type locality: Altamira, Para state, Brasil.


Spectrolebias semiocellatus W. J. E. M. Costa & D. T. B. Nielsen, 1997

A new Genus and Species of annual Fish (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae) from the Araguaia basin, central Brazil. Ichthyol. ExpIor. Freshwaters, 7 (3): 259, figs. 1-2.

Type locality: close to rio Formoso, rio Araguaia basin, Formoso do Araguaia, Tocantins, Brasil. 


A new genus of miniature cynolebiasine from the Atlantic Forest and alternative biogeographical explanations for seasonal killifish distribution patterns in South America (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae)  (Costa 2014)


Abstract The analysis of 78 morphological characters for 16 species representing all the lineages of the tribe Cynopoecilini and three out-groups, indicates that the incertae sedis miniature species ‘Leptolebias’ leitaoi Cruz & Peixoto is the sister group of a clade comprising the genera Leptolebias, Campellolebias, and Cynopoecilus, consequently recognised as the only member of a new genus. Mucurilebias gen. nov. is diagnosed by seven autapomorphies: eye occupying great part of head side, low number of caudal-fin rays (21), distal portion of epural much broader than distal portion of parhypural, an oblique red bar through opercle in both sexes, isthmus bright red in males, a white stripe on the distal margin of the dorsal fin in males, and a red stripe on the distal margin of the anal fin in males. Mucurilebias leitaoi is an endangered seasonal species endemic to the Mucuri river basin. The biogeographical analysis of genera of the subfamily Cynolebiasinae using a dispersal-vicariance, event-based parsimony approach indicates that distribution of South American killifishes may be broadly shaped by dispersal events. The analysis supports south-eastern Brazilian coastal plains as the centre of dispersal for cynolebiasine killifishes. Alternative biogeographical explanations are compared and possible dispersal routes and means of dispersal are discussed.