Ophthalmolebias (Costa 2006) 6 Arten

Type species. Simpsonichthys constanciae (Myers). 

Type locality: 10 miles (16 km) north of Cabo Frio, Rio de Janeiro state, Brasil.


Ophthalmolebias ilheusensis (Costa & Lima, 2010)

Ophthalmolebias bokermanni (Carvalho & da Cruz, 1987)

Ophthalmolebias constanciae (Myers, 1942)

Ophthalmolebias perpendicularis Costa, Nielsen & de Luca, 2001

Ophthalmolebias rosaceus Costa, Nielsen & de Luca, 2001

Ophthalmolebias suzarti Costa, 2004



Descriptive morphology and phylogenetic relationships among species of the Neotropical annual killifish genera Nematolebias and Simpsonichthys (Cyprinodontiformes: Aplocheiloidei: Rivulidae)    Costa 2006



Structures of the external morphology and skeleton of the annual fish genera Nematolebias and Simpsonichthys are described and illustrated. Phylogenetic relationships among all included species of both genera and other cynolebiatins are estimated, based on 116 morphological characters in a total of 50 terminal taxa. Nematolebias is hypothesized to be the sister group of a clade including Simpsonichthys, Austrolebias, Megalebias, and Cynolebias, which is diagnosed by ventral portion of mesopterygoid not overlapping quadrate, third neural spine approximately as wide as fourth neural spine, ventral condyle of coracoid narrow, scales slightly extending over anal-fin base, loss of vomerine teeth, loss of neuromast anterior to infraorbital series, ventral process of the angulo-articular short and narrow, and dorsal portion of cleithrum elongated. Simpsonichthys is divided into five subgenera, including Spectrolebias, previously considered a separate genus, Simpsonichthys, and three new subgenera, Xenurolebias, Ophthalmolebias, and Hypsolebias. Monophyly of Simpsonichthys is supported by a small pointed dorsal process on the palatine, unbranched fin rays on the tip of the dorsal and anal fins in males, and frontal E-scales overlapped.


Ophthalmolebias  ilheusensis  (Costa & Lima, 2010)

Ophthalmolebias ilheusensis, new combination, with additional notes on colour pattern of live males (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae)

While the original description of Simpsonichthys ilheusensis was in press (Costa & Lima, 2010), a study of the phylogenetic relationships of cynolebiasine killifishes was published (Costa, 2010), in which Simpsonichthys appears as a paraphyletic assemblage. As a consequence, monophyletic units previously classified as subgenera of Simpsonichthys were considered as valid genera. Thus, S. ilheusensis should be transferred to Ophthalmolebias, constituting the new combination Ophthalmolebias ilheusensis


Ophthalmolebias bokermanni (Carvalho & da Cruz, 1987)

Um novo Cynolebias do sudeste Baiano (Pisces, Cyprinodontidae, Rivulinae). Arq. Univ. Fed. Rur. Rio de Janeiro, 8 (1-2) (1985): 12, figs. 1-3.

Costa, W.J.E.M., 2003. Rivulidae (South American Annual Fishes). p. 526-548. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil.


Ophthalmolebias bokermani "Ilheus"

Ophthalmolebias constanciae (Myers, 1942)

Studies on South American Freshwater Fishes I. Stanford Ichthyological Bull., 2 (4): 105.

Type locality: 10 miles (16 km) north of Cabo Frio, Rio de Janeiro state, Brasil.


Ophthalmolebias constanciae

Ophthalmolebias rosaceus Costa, Nielsen & de Luca, 2001

Quatro novos rivulideos anuais do gênero Simpsonichthys (Cyprinodontiformes) das bacias dos rios São Francisco e Pardo, Brasil. Rev. Fr. Aquariol. 4(26):24-31. 

Distribution: South America: Pardo River basin in Brazil.

Ophthalmolebias perpendicularis Costa, Nielsen & de Luca, 2001
Quatro novos Rivulideos annuais do gênero Simpsonichthys (Cyprinodontiformes) das Bacias dos Rios Sao Francisco e Pardo, Brasil. Revista Aquarium, 4 (26): 26, fig.

Type locality: 6 km of Jordânia towards Itarantim, ribeirao do Salto, rio Jequitinhonha basin, Bahia state, Brasil (altitude 297 m).

Ophthalmolebias suzarti Costa, 2004

Simpsonichthys suzarti sp. n. (Teleostei: Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae): a new annual fish from the Rio Pardo floodplains, northeastern Brazil Zootaxa 468:1-7.


Simpsonichthys suzarti, new species, from the floodplains of the lower Rio Pardo, northeastern Bra-zil, is described. It is a member of a clade, herein termed S. constanciae species group, which is diagnosed by the eyes laterally positioned on the head and a derived pattern of cephalic neuromast arrangement, in which the supraorbital series is interrupted by a median interspace. It differs from all other species of the group in having the anal fin rounded in males and by the distinctive color pattern of males, including the presence of reddish brown bars along the whole flank, reticulate dark brown marks on the dorsal fin and oblique dark brown bars on the anal fin. A key to the spe-cies of the S. constanciae group is provided.

Ophtalmolebias suzarti "South Bahia"


A new genus of miniature cynolebiasine from the Atlantic Forest and alternative biogeographical explanations for seasonal killifish distribution patterns in South America (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae)  (Costa 2014)


Abstract The analysis of 78 morphological characters for 16 species representing all the lineages of the tribe Cynopoecilini and three out-groups, indicates that the incertae sedis miniature species ‘Leptolebias’ leitaoi Cruz & Peixoto is the sister group of a clade comprising the genera Leptolebias, Campellolebias, and Cynopoecilus, consequently recognised as the only member of a new genus. Mucurilebias gen. nov. is diagnosed by seven autapomorphies: eye occupying great part of head side, low number of caudal-fin rays (21), distal portion of epural much broader than distal portion of parhypural, an oblique red bar through opercle in both sexes, isthmus bright red in males, a white stripe on the distal margin of the dorsal fin in males, and a red stripe on the distal margin of the anal fin in males. Mucurilebias leitaoi is an endangered seasonal species endemic to the Mucuri river basin. The biogeographical analysis of genera of the subfamily Cynolebiasinae using a dispersal-vicariance, event-based parsimony approach indicates that distribution of South American killifishes may be broadly shaped by dispersal events. The analysis supports south-eastern Brazilian coastal plains as the centre of dispersal for cynolebiasine killifishes. Alternative biogeographical explanations are compared and possible dispersal routes and means of dispersal are discussed.