Orestias (Valenciennes, 1839) 45 Arten

Agassii species complex

Orestias agassizii Valenciennes, 1846 (Carache Negro)

Orestias albus Valenciennes, 1846 (Carache Amarillo)

Orestias ascotanensis Parenti, 1984

Embryological development of the high-altitude killifish Orestias ascotanensis Parenti 1984 (Teleostei: Cyprinodontidae)  (Consuelo Macaya, Natalia Lam & Irma Vila 2019)



Orestias ascotanensis Parenti is a critically-endangered fish species endemic to the Ascotán salt pan springs. Given the importance of reproduction and early development in effective conservation of fish populations, this study describes the embryonic development of O. ascotanensis under laboratory conditions. Between 2014 and 2015, 50 individuals were captured and maintained under controlled conditions, including temperature, photoperiod and feeding regimen, to induce spawning for artificial fertilization. Females were subjected to hormone therapy with Ovaprim®. Water temperature was maintained at 20 °C (± 1 °C), conductivity at 2800–3600 μS·cm−1 and photoperiod at 16:8 (light hours: dark hours). Males showed changes in color and courtship behavior, and females developed a slightly bulging belly. Eggs were 1.55–2.5 mm in diameter, with abundant yolk and dozens of adhesion filaments. Embryonic development lasted 14–18 days; it was divided into five periods, which can be sub-divided into 21 stages, from fertilization to hatching. O. ascotanensis showed indications of partial spawning species, including oocytes at different stages of development, relatively large eggs as compared to adult fish length and low batch spawning. Characteristics such as partial spawning, highly-pigmented eggs and larvae and advanced larval development at hatching could be adaptations to the extreme conditions of the salt pan springs, including high levels of ultraviolet radiation and salinity as well as significant daily temperature changes.


Orestias chungarensis Vila & M. Pinto, 1987

Orestias ctenolepis Parenti, 1984

Orestias elegans Garman, 1895

Orestias empyraeus W. R. Allen, 1942

Orestias frontosus Cope, 1876

Orestias gloriae Vila, S. Scott, Méndez, Valenzuela, Iturra & Poulin, 2012


Orestias gloriae, a new species of cyprinodontid fish from saltpan spring of the southern high Andes (Teleostei: Cyprinodontidae)

Vila, S. Scott, Méndez, Valenzuela, Iturra & Poulin, 2012


Orestias gloriae, new species, is described from the isolated springs that drain into the Carcote saltpan in the southern high Andes, in the Chilean Altiplano, at an altitude of 3706 m a.s. 1. (21°16'58.6'S 68°19'28.4" W). This is the only fish species found in these saltpan springs characterized by scarce vegetation, aquatic insects, crustaceans, and mollusks. The new species is separated from other species of Orestias by several unique characters such as a truncated cephalic lyre-like pattern of neuromasts represented only by the rostral series followed by few and large neuromasts irregularly placed; discontinuous series of infraorbital and preopercle-mandibular neuromasts; thick and irregularly-shaped ornamented cycloid scales covering the skull roof; scales covering the posterior part of the skull roof ankylosed into a plate. Additional characters are the presence of a protractile mouth and a characteristic karyotype. Although differences in sizes is a common sexually dimorphic feature found in Orestias, differences in the dentition on the fifth ceratobranchial distinsguish males and females of O. gloriae.



Orestias gymnotus Parenti, 1984

Orestias hardini Parenti, 1984

Orestias jussiei Valenciennes, 1846 (Carache Amarillo)

Orestias lastarriae Philippi {Krumweide}, 1876

Orestias laucaensis Arratia, 1982

Orestias luteus Valenciennes, 1846 (Carache Amarillo)

Orestias multiporis Parenti, 1984

Orestias mundus Parenti, 1984

Orestias olivaceus Garman, 1895

Orestias parinacotensis Arratia, 1982

Orestias piacotensis Vila, 2006

Orestias polonorum Tchernavin, 1944

Orestias puni Tchernavin, 1944

Orestias richersoni Parenti, 1984

Orestias silustani W. R. Allen, 1942

Orestias tschudii Castelnau, 1855

Orestias ututo Parenti, 1984




Cuvieri species complex

Orestias cuvieri Valenciennes, 1846 (Titicaca Orestias, Amanto; extinct (mid-20th century))

Orestias forgeti Lauzanne, 1981 (Ispi)

Orestias ispi Lauzanne, 1981 (Ispi)

Orestias pentlandii Valenciennes, 1846 (Boga)


Gilsoni species complex

Orestias gilsoni Tchernavin, 1944

Orestias imarpe Parenti, 1984

Orestias minimus Tchernavin, 1944

Orestias minutus Tchernavin, 1944

Orestias mooni Tchernavin, 1944

Orestias robustus Parenti, 1984

Orestias taquiri Tchernavin, 1944

Orestias tchernavini Lauzanne, 1981

Orestias tomcooni Parenti, 1984

Orestias uruni Tchernavin, 1944


Mulleri species complex

Orestias crawfordi Tchernavin, 1944

Orestias gracilis Parenti, 1984

Orestias incae Garman, 1895

Orestias mulleri Valenciennes, 1846

Orestias tutini Tchernavin, 1944