Rivulus (Poey, 1860)

Type-species: Rivulus cylindraceus 

(Poissons de Cuba, Espèces nouvelles. Mem. Hist. Nat. Isla de Cuba, Havana., vol. 2 art. 49: 307.)


Rivulus - Arten (Costa 2011


Rivulus cylindraceus  (Poey,  1860)

Poissons de Cuba, Espèces nouvelles. Mem. Hist. Nat. Isla de Cuba, Havana., vol. 2 art. 49: 308, 383.

Type locality: near Havana in a stream which flows into Mordazo, (northern) Cuba.



Rivulus cylindraceus

Rivulus insulaepinorum (Cruz & Dubitsky, 1976)

Cruz, J. de la & A.M. Dubitsky. 1976. Dos Nuevas Especies de Peces dulceacuicolas del Genero Rivulus Poey (Cyprinodontidae) de Cuba e Isla de Pinos. Poeyana, 155: 2.


Type locality: 3 km north of Cayo Piedras, La Fe, Isla de Pinos (60 km off the coast of Cuba main island), Cuba.

Untergattungen von Rivulus (Huber 2012)


Huber, J.H., Reappraisal of the Phylogeny of Rivulus and its Allied focused on External Characters. Killi‐ Data Series 2012, 9‐25, 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Abstract: In the present study all known to date phylogenetic lineages encompassing the genus Rivulus in the large sense and its relatives, 44 in total, are benchmarked against a very long list of external characters involving global and detailed morphology of each, plus some characters related to biology, behavior and ecology, plus a few characters concerning the vertebrae counts and their structure. The parsimony analysis for these 144 characters results in 3 trees only, very much in line with the global stability of major lineages and the consensus tree produces bootstrap values that are much higher than previously released studies with morphological and osteological characters. In the resulting tree, outside Kryptolebias already separated in 2004, the genus Rivulus in the large sense is shown as a monophyletic assemblage like in the molecular study by Murphy, Thomerson & Collier (1999), with annual and non‐ annual species separated, but unlike Costa (2011) who used both morpho‐osteological and molecular combined characters. Apart from the coherence of the genus Rivulus in a large sense, the analysis newly suggests the primitive position of Millerichthys, the monophyly of major annual subclades, and the phylogenetic relationship of a clade of 3 subgenera of Rivulus, namely Prorivulus, Atlantirivulus, Melanorivulus in line with a previous palaeo‐bridge hypothesis and the minor osteological diagnostic characters that were forwarded for these 3 taxa should be deepened and re‐evaluated. Two other subunits of Rivulus, namely Anablepsoides and Oditichthys, are atypically placed in the tree, but their 2 type species were not studied by Costa (2011) and that too would need re‐evaluation. Finally several phylogenetic lineages belonging to the huge ‐and very poorly known‐ Amazon basin ends up in an unstable position and more material and characters are thought necessary for further research of this very difficult group of fish.

Genus Rivulus Poey, 1860.

 Subgenus Rivulus s.s. Poey, 1860.             (Genus Rivulus Costa)

 Subgenus Anablepsoides Huber, 1992.    (Genus Anablepsoides Costa)

 Subgenus Atlantirivulus Costa, 2008.        (Genus Atlantirivulus Costa)

 Subgenus Benirivulus Costa, 2006.            (Genus Anablepsoides Costa)

 Subgenus Cynodonichthys Meek, 1904.   (Genus Cynodonichthys Costa)

 Subgenus Laimosemion Huber, 1999.      (Genus Laimosemion Costa)

 Subgenus Melanorivulus Costa, 2006.      (Genus Melanorivulus Costa

 Subgenus Oditichthys Huber, 1999.          (Genus Anablepsoides Costa)

 Subgenus Owiyeye Costa, 2006.                 (Genus Laimosemion Costa)

 Subgenus Vomerivulus Fowler, 1944.        (Genus Cynodonichthys Costa)



Phylogenetic position and taxonomic status of Anablepsoides, Atlantirivulus, Cynodonichthys, Laimosemion and Melanorivulus (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae)

Wilson J. E. M. Costa 2011

Abstract: A maximum parsimony analysis of a combined set of mitochondrial and morphological data available in the literature for 33 rivuline taxa and three outgroups confirms Rivulus as a paraphyletic assemblage. In order to adjust a generic classification to our present phylogenetic knowledge on rivuline relationships, the following taxonomic changes are proposed: Rivulus, restricted to two species endemic to Cuba, is hypothesized to be the most basal rivuline lineage, distinguished from all other non-annual rivulines by having all hypurals fused into a single plate, neural prezygapophysis of caudal vertebrae rudimentary, fourth ceratobranchial teeth absent, about 50 % of the anterior portion of the caudal fin covered by scales, four neuromasts on the anterior supraorbital series, and a black round spot with white margin on the dorsoposterior portion of the caudal peduncle in females; Anablepsoides, Atlantirivulus, Laimosemion, Melanorivulus and Cynodonichthys, previously classified as subgenera of Rivulus, are considered as valid genera; Laimosemion, including 24 species from northern South America, constitutes the sister group to a clade comprising Melanorivulus, Cynodonichthys, Anablepsoides, Atlantirivulus, and all annual rivuline genera, which is supported by a well-developed dorsal process of the urohyal and an expanded lateral articular facet of the first hypobranchial; Melanorivulus, comprising 34 species from central and northeastern South America, Cynodonichthys with 27 species from Central America and Trans-Andean South America, Anablepsoides with 42 species from northern and northeastern South America and Smaller Antilles, and Atlantirivulus, with 11 species endemic to the eastern Brazilian coastal plains are diagnosed by combinations of morphological characters, including osteology, cephalic laterosensory system and colour patterns.